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Université de Fribourg

Optogenetic stimulation of basal forebrain parvalbumin neurons activates the default mode network and associated behaviors

Lozano-Montes, Laura ; Dimanico, Marta ; Mazloum, Reza ; Li, Wenxue ; Nair, Jayakrishnan ; Kintscher, Michael ; Schneggenburger, Ralf ; Harvey, Michael ; Rainer, Gregor

In: Cell Reports, 2020, vol. 33, no. 6, p. 108359

Activation of the basal forebrain (BF) has been associated with increased attention, arousal, and a heightened cortical representation of the external world. In addition, BF has been implicated in the regulation of the default mode network (DMN) and associated behaviors. Here, we provide causal evidence for a role of BF in DMN regulation, highlighting a prominent role of parvalbumin (PV)...

Université de Fribourg

Enigmatic dinosaur precursors bridge the gap to the origin of Pterosauria

Ezcurra, Martín D. ; Nesbitt, Sterling J. ; Bronzati, Mario ; Vecchia, Fabio Marco Dalla ; Agnolin, Federico L. ; Benson, Roger B. J. ; Egli, Federico Brissón ; Cabreira, Sergio F. ; Evers, Serjoscha W. ; Gentil, Adriel R. ; Irmis, Randall B. ; Martinelli, Agustín G. ; Novas, Fernando E. ; Silva, Lúcio Roberto da ; Smith, Nathan D. ; Stocker, Michelle R. ; Turner, Alan H. ; Langer, Max C.

In: Nature, 2020, vol. 588, no. 2020-7838, p. 445–449

Pterosaurs were the first vertebrates to evolve powered flight1 and comprised one of the main evolutionary radiations in terrestrial ecosystems of the Mesozoic era (approximately 252–66 million years ago), but their origin has remained an unresolved enigma in palaeontology since the nineteenth century2,3,4. These flying reptiles have been hypothesized to be the close relatives of a wide...

Université de Fribourg

Role of the thalamus in basal forebrain regulation of neural activity in the primary auditory cortex

Azimi, Hamid ; Klaassen, Arndt-Lukas ; Thomas, Kevin ; Harvey, Michael A. ; Rainer, Gregor

In: Cerebral Cortex, 2020, vol. 30, no. 8, p. 4481–4495

Many studies have implicated the basal forebrain (BF) as a potent regulator of sensory encoding even at the earliest stages of or cortical processing. The source of this regulation involves the well-documented corticopetal cholinergic projections from BF to primary cortical areas. However, the BF also projects to subcortical structures, including the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), which...

Université de Fribourg

Fish, amphibian and reptilian assemblage from the middle Miocene locality Gračanica—Bugojno palaeolake, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Vasilyan, Davit

In: Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments, 2020, vol. 100, no. 2, p. 437–455

This paper presents the first fossil fish, amphibian and reptilian fauna from Bosnia and Herzegovina Dinarides. The fauna of ectothermic vertebrates of the Bugojno palaeolake, dated to 15.2–14.0 Ma, composes of killifishes (Cyprinodontiformes indet.), a barb (Barbini indet. (aff. Barbus), a crocodile newt (Chelotriton sp.), a painted frog (Latonia sp.) and a crocodile (Alligatoroidea indet....

Université de Fribourg

Integrated bio- and cyclostratigraphy of Middle Triassic (Anisian) ramp deposits, NW Bulgaria

Ajdanlijsky, George ; Strasser, André ; Götz, Annette E.

In: Geologica Carpathica, 2019, vol. 70, no. 4, p. 325–354

A cyclostratigraphic interpretation of peritidal to shallow-marine ramp deposits of the early Middle Triassic (Anisian) Opletnya Member exposed in outcrops along the Iskar River gorge, NW Bulgaria, is presented. Based on facies trends and bounding surfaces, depositional sequences of several orders can be identified. New biostratigraphic data provide a time frame of the studied succession with...

Università della Svizzera italiana

Influenza hemagglutinin membrane anchor

Benton, Donald J. ; Nans, Andrea ; Calder, Lesley J. ; Turner, Jack ; Neu, Ursula ; Lin, Yi Pu ; Ketelaars, Esther ; Kallewaard, Nicole L. ; Corti, Davide ; Lanzavecchia, Antonio ; Gamblin, Steven J. ; Rosenthal, Peter B. ; Skehel, John J.

In: Proceedings of the national academy of sciences of the United States of America, 2018, vol. 115, no. 40, p. 10112-10117

Viruses with membranes fuse them with cellular membranes, to transfer their genomes into cells at the beginning of infection. For Influenza virus, the membrane glycoprotein involved in fusion is the hemagglutinin (HA), the 3D structure of which is known from X-ray crystallographic studies. The soluble ectodomain fragments used in these studies lacked the “membrane anchor” portion of the...

Université de Fribourg

Reproduction of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia reveals the ability of convalescent sera to reduce hydrogen peroxide production in vitro

Liljander, Anne ; Sacchini, Flavio ; Stoffel, Michael H. ; Schieck, Elise ; Stokar‑Regenscheit, Nadine ; Labroussaa, Fabien ; Heller, Martin ; Salt, Jeremy ; Frey, Joachim ; Falquet, Laurent ; Goovaerts, Danny ; Jores, Joerg

In: Veterinary Research, 2019, vol. 50, no. 1, p. 10

Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP), caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is a severe disease widespread in Africa and Asia. Limited knowledge is available on the pathogenesis of this organism, mainly due to the lack of a robust in vivo challenge model and the means to do site-directed mutagenesis. This work describes the establishment of a novel caprine challenge...