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Université de Fribourg

The Causal Effects of Competition on Innovation : Experimental Evidence

Aghion, Philippe ; Bechtold, Stefan ; Cassar, Lea ; Herz, Holger

In: The Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, 2018, vol. 34, no. 2, p. 162-195

We design two laboratory experiments to analyze the causal effects of competition on step-by-step innovation. Innovations result from costly R&D investments and move technology up one step. Competition is inversely measured by the ex post rents for firms that operate at the same technological level, i.e. for neck-and-neck firms. First, we find that increased competition leads to a significant...

Université de Fribourg

Modularity of the neck in birds (Aves)

Terray, Léa ; Plateau, Olivia ; Abourachid, Anick ; Böhmer, Christine ; Delapré, Arnaud ; la Bernardie, Xavier de ; Cornette, Raphaël

In: Evolutionary Biology, 2020, p. -

The neck connects the head and the trunk and is the key structure allowing all movements of the head. The neck morphology of birds is the most variable among living tetrapods, including significant differences in the number and shape of the cervical vertebrae. Despite these differences, according to the literature, three morphofunctional regions (i.e., modules) have been identified along the...

Université de Fribourg

Feeding biomechanics suggests progressive correlation of skull architecture and neck evolution in turtles

Ferreira, Gabriel S. ; Lautenschlager, Stephan ; Evers, Serjoscha W. ; Pfaff, Cathrin ; Kriwet, Jürgen ; Raselli, Irena ; Werneburg, Ingmar

In: Scientific Reports, 2020, vol. 10, p. 5505

The origin of turtles is one of the most long-lasting debates in evolutionary research. During their evolution, a series of modifications changed their relatively kinetic and anapsid skull into an elongated akinetic structure with a unique pulley system redirecting jaw adductor musculature. These modifications were thought to be strongly correlated to functional adaptations, especially to bite...

Université de Fribourg

Intracortical inhibition increases during postural task execution in response to balance training

Mouthon, Audrey ; Taube, Wolfgang

In: Neuroscience, 2019, vol. 401, p. 35–42

Intracortical inhibitory modulation seems crucial for an intact motor control and motor learning. However, the influence of long(er) term training on short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) is scarcely investigated. With respect to balance, it was previously shown that with increasing postural task difficulty, SICI decreased but the effect of balance training (BT) is unknown. The...

Université de Fribourg

Aging effects on prefrontal cortex oxygenation in a posture-cognition dual-task: an fNIRS pilot study

Marusic, Uros ; Taube, Wolfgang ; Morrison, Shawnda A. ; Biasutti, Lea ; Grassi, Bruno ; Pauw, Kevin De ; Meeusen, Romain ; Pisot, Rado ; Ruffieux, Jan

In: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity, 2019, vol. 16, no. 1, p. 2

The aging process alters upright posture and locomotion control from an automatically processed to a more cortically controlled one. The present study investigated a postural-cognitive dual-task paradigm in young and older adults using functional Near- Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS).Methods: Twenty healthy participants (10 older adults 72 ± 3 y, 10 young adults 23 ± 3 y) performed a...

Université de Fribourg

Alterations in the cortical control of standing posture during varying levels of postural threat and task difficulty

Tokuno, Craig D. ; Keller, Martin ; Carpenter, Mark G. ; Márquez, Gonzalo ; Taube, Wolfgang

In: Journal of Neurophysiology, 2018, vol. 120, no. 3, p. 1010–1016

Cortical excitability increases during the performance of more difficult postural tasks. However, it is possible that changes in postural threat associated with more difficult tasks may in themselves lead to alterations in the neural strategies underlying postural control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in postural threat are responsible for the...

Bibliothèque cantonale jurassienne

Traces de dinosaures jurassiques : Courtedoux-Béchat Bovais

Paratte, Géraldine ; Lapaire, Marielle ; Lovis, Christel ; Marty, Daniel

Porrentruy : Office de la culture, Paléontologie A16, 2017

(Catalogues du patrimoine paléontologique jurassien - A16)

ISBN: 9782884360524

Université de Fribourg

Age-dependent adaptations to anticipated and non-anticipated perturbations after balance training in children

Wälchli, Michael ; Keller, Martin ; Ruffieux, Jan ; Mouthon, Audrey ; Taube, Wolfgang

In: Human Movement Science, 2018, vol. 59, p. 170–177

Postural control undergoes rapid changes during child development. However, the influence of balance training (BT) on the compensation of perturbations has not yet been investigated in children. For this purpose, young (6.7 ± 0.6 years) and old children (12.0 ± 0.4 years) were exposed to externally induced anticipated (direction known) and non-anticipated (direction unknown)...

Bibliothèque cantonale jurassienne

Traces de dinosaures jurassiques : Courtedoux-Bois de Sylleux

Paratte, Géraldine ; Lapaire, Marielle ; Lovis, Christel ; Marty, Daniel

Porrentruy : Office de la culture, Paléontologie A16, 2018

(Catalogues du patrimoine paléontologique jurassien - A16)

ISBN: 9782884360470