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Université de Fribourg

Optogenetic stimulation of basal forebrain parvalbumin neurons activates the default mode network and associated behaviors

Lozano-Montes, Laura ; Dimanico, Marta ; Mazloum, Reza ; Li, Wenxue ; Nair, Jayakrishnan ; Kintscher, Michael ; Schneggenburger, Ralf ; Harvey, Michael ; Rainer, Gregor

In: Cell Reports, 2020, vol. 33, no. 6, p. 108359

Activation of the basal forebrain (BF) has been associated with increased attention, arousal, and a heightened cortical representation of the external world. In addition, BF has been implicated in the regulation of the default mode network (DMN) and associated behaviors. Here, we provide causal evidence for a role of BF in DMN regulation, highlighting a prominent role of parvalbumin (PV)...

Université de Fribourg

Alpha‐synuclein dopaminylation presented in plasma of both healthy subjects and parkinson’s disease patients

Zhao, Huiyuan ; Huang, Shuai ; Palanisamy, Sivakumar ; Wang, Cui ; Rainer, Gregor ; Zhang, Xiaozhe

In: PROTEOMICS – Clinical Applications, 2020, vol. 14, no. 5, p. 1900117

Alpha‐synuclein (α‐syn) dopaminylation can lead to the death of dopaminergic neurons in the brain and is a risk factor of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aims to examine whether such a posttranslational modification (PTM) is presented in human blood plasma. Experimental Design: In vitro reaction simulation between α‐syn and dopamine (DA) is conducted to study the biochemical...

Université de Fribourg

Role of the thalamus in basal forebrain regulation of neural activity in the primary auditory cortex

Azimi, Hamid ; Klaassen, Arndt-Lukas ; Thomas, Kevin ; Harvey, Michael A. ; Rainer, Gregor

In: Cerebral Cortex, 2020, vol. 30, no. 8, p. 4481–4495

Many studies have implicated the basal forebrain (BF) as a potent regulator of sensory encoding even at the earliest stages of or cortical processing. The source of this regulation involves the well-documented corticopetal cholinergic projections from BF to primary cortical areas. However, the BF also projects to subcortical structures, including the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), which...

Université de Fribourg

Measurement of ultra-trace level of intact oxytocin in plasma using SALLE combined with nano-LC–MS

Liu, Dan ; Han, Xiaoli ; Liu, Xinxin ; Cheng, Mengchun ; He, Meixi ; Rainer, Gregor ; Gao, Huiyuan ; Zhang, Xiaozhe

In: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 2019, vol. 173, p. 62–67

Measurement of peptides such as oxytocin in plasma is a critical challenge in clinical research because of their extreme low concentrations as well as the tremendous interferencing substances co-presented in plasma. In this study, we developed an efficient salt-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) to treat plasma, and then analyzed the samples using nano-LC–MS to quantify intact...

Université de Fribourg

Divergent solutions to visual problem solving across mammalian species

Mustafar, Faiz ; Harvey, Michael A. ; Khani, Abbas ; Arató, József ; Rainer, Gregor

In: eNeuro, 2018, vol. 5, no. 4, p. -

Our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of learning and behavior relies on the use of invasive techniques, which necessitate the use of animal models. However, when different species learn the same task, to what degree are they actually producing the same behavior and engaging homologous neural circuitry? This question has received virtually no recent attention, even as the...

Université de Fribourg

Distinct frequency specialization for detecting dark transients in humans and tree shrews

Khani, Abbas ; Mustafar, Faiz ; Rainer, Gregor

In: Cell Reports, 2018, vol. 23, no. 8, p. 2405–2415

Despite well-known privileged perception of dark over light stimuli, it is unknown to what extent this dark dominance is maintained when visual transients occur in rapid succession, for example, during perception of moving stimuli. Here, we address this question using dark and light transients presented at different flicker frequencies. Although both human participants and tree shrews...

Université de Fribourg

Stress impacts the regulation neuropeptides in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex

Li, Wenxue ; Papilloud, Aurelie ; Lozano-Montes, Laura ; Zhao, Nan ; Ye, Xueting ; Zhang, Xiaozhe ; Sandi, Carmen ; Rainer, Gregor

In: PROTEOMICS, 2018, vol. 18, no. 7, p. 1700408

Adverse life experiences increase the lifetime risk to several stress‐related psychopathologies, such as anxiety or depressive‐like symptoms following stress in adulthood. However, the neurochemical modulations triggered by stress have not been fully characterized. Neuropeptides play an important role as signaling molecules that contribute to physiological regulation and have been linked...

Université de Fribourg

Basal forebrain contributes to default mode network regulation

Nair, Jayakrishnan ; Klaassen, Arndt-Lukas ; Arato, Jozsef ; Vyssotski, Alexei L. ; Harvey, Michael ; Rainer, Gregor

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2018, vol. 115, no. 6, p. 1352–1357

The default mode network (DMN) is a collection of cortical brain regions that is active during states of rest or quiet wakefulness in humans and other mammalian species. A pertinent characteristic of the DMN is a suppression of local field potential gamma activity during cognitive task performance as well as during engagement with external sensory stimuli. Conversely, gamma activity is...

Université de Fribourg

Astrocytic and neuronal oxidative metabolism are coupled to the rate of glutamate–glutamine cycle in the tree shrew visual cortex

Sonnay, Sarah ; Poirot, Jordan ; Just, Nathalie ; Clerc, Anne-Catherine ; Gruetter, Rolf ; Rainer, Gregor ; Duarte, João M. N.

In: Glia, 2018, vol. 66, no. 3, p. 477–491

Astrocytes play an important role in glutamatergic neurotransmission, namely by clearing synaptic glutamate and converting it into glutamine that is transferred back to neurons. The rate of this glutamate–glutamine cycle (VNT) has been proposed to couple to that of glucose utilization and of neuronal tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that glutamatergic...