Evidence for nonconsumptive effects from a large predator in an ungulate prey?

Gehr, Benedikt ; Hofer, Elizabeth J. ; Ryser, Andreas ; Vimercati, Eric ; Vogt, Kristina ; Keller, Lukas F.

In: Behavioral Ecology, 2018, vol. 29, no. 3, p. 724-735

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    Summary
    Predators not only affect prey survival directly through predation, but they can also affect prey survival and reproduction indirectly by evoking costly antipredator responses. Here, we present evidence that a large terrestrial mammalian predator elicits strong antipredator behavioral responses in an ungulate prey, which indirectly affect prey survival. This is one of few large terrestrial mammal studies that provide evidence for the survival costs of antipredator responses in their prey.