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Université de Fribourg

Evolution in group-structured populations can resolve the tragedy of the commons

Killingback, Timothy ; Bieri, Jonas ; Flatt, Thomas

In: Proceeding of the Royal Society, 2006, no. 273, p. 1477–1481

Public goods are the key features of all human societies and are also important in many animal societies. Collaborative hunting and collective defence are but two examples of public goods that have played a crucial role in the development of human societies and still play an important role in many animal societies. Public goods allow societies composed largely of cooperators to outperform...

Università della Svizzera italiana

Consensus protocols exploiting network programmability

Dang, Huynh Tu ; Soulé, Robert (Dir.) ; Pedone, Fernando (Codir.)

Thèse de doctorat : Università della Svizzera italiana, 2019 ; 2019INFO003.

Services rely on replication mechanisms to be available at all time. The service demanding high availability is replicated on a set of machines called replicas. To maintain the consistency of replicas, a consensus protocol such as Paxos or Raft is used to synchronize the replicas' state. As a result, failures of a minority of replicas will not affect the service as other non-faulty replicas...

Université de Fribourg

Living long and well: prospects for a personalized approach to the medicine of ageing

Fuellen G. ; Schofield P. ; Flatt Thomas ; Schulz R.-J. ; Boege F. ; Kraft K. ; Rimbach G. ; Ibrahim S. ; Tietz A. ; Schmidt C. ; Köhling R. ; Simm A.

In: Gerontology, 2016, vol. 62, no. 4, p. 409–416

Research into ageing and its underlying molecular basis enables us to develop and implement targeted interventions to ameliorate or cure its consequences. However, the efficacy of interventions often differs widely between individuals, suggesting that populations should be stratified or even individualized. Large-scale cohort studies in humans, similar systematic studies in model organisms as...

Université de Fribourg

Inference of chromosomal inversion dynamics from Pool-Seq data in natural and laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster

Kapun, Martin ; van Schalkwyk, Hester ; McAllister, Bryant ; Flatt, Thomas ; Schlötterer, Christian

In: Molecular Ecology, 2014, vol. 23, no. 7, p. 1813–1827

Sequencing of pools of individuals (Pool‐Seq) represents a reliable and cost‐effective approach for estimating genome‐wide SNP and transposable element insertion frequencies. However, Pool‐Seq does not provide direct information on haplotypes so that, for example, obtaining inversion frequencies has not been possible until now. Here, we have developed a new set of diagnostic marker...

Università della Svizzera italiana

How viruses hijack the ERAD tuning machinery

Noack, Julia ; Bernasconi, Riccardo ; Molinari, Maurizio

In: Journal of virology, 2014, vol. 88, no. 18, p. 10272-10275

An essential step during the intracellular life cycle of many positive-strand RNA viruses is the rearrangement of host cell membranes to generate membrane-bound replication platforms. For example, Nidovirales and Flaviviridae subvert the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for their replication. However, the absence of conventional ER and secretory pathway markers in virus-induced...

Università della Svizzera italiana

Division of labor among oxidoreductases : TMX1 preferentially acts on transmembrane polypeptides

Brambilla Pisoni, Giorgia ; Ruddock, Lloyd W. ; Bulleid, Neil ; Molinari, Maurizio

In: Molecular biology of the cell, 2015, vol. 26, no. 19, p. 3373-3556

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of maturation for secretory and membrane proteins in eukaryotic cells. The lumen of the mammalian ER contains >20 members of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) superfamily, which ensure formation of the correct set of intramolecular and intermolecular disulfide bonds as crucial, rate-limiting reactions of the protein folding process. Components of...

Università della Svizzera italiana

A novel UGGT1 and p97-dependent checkpoint for native ectodomains with ionizable intramembrane residue

Merulla, Jessica ; Tatiana Soldà ; Maurizio Molinari

In: Molecular biology of the cell, 2015, vol. 26, no. 8, p. 1413-1574

Only native polypeptides are released from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to be transported at the site of activity. Persistently misfolded proteins are retained and eventually selected for ER-associated degradation (ERAD). The paradox of a structure- based protein quality control is that functional polypeptides may be destroyed if they are architecturally unfit. This has health-threatening...

Université de Fribourg

The influence of ant-attendance on aphid behaviour investigated with the electrical penetration graph technique

Rauch, Gisep ; Simon, Jean-Christophe ; Chaubet, Bernard ; Haack, Lucie ; Flatt, Thomas ; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

In: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 2002, no. 102, p. 13-20

For themutualistic interaction between the aphidMetopeurum fuscoviride Stroyan (Homoptera:Aphididae) and the ant Lasius niger L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) it has been shown that ant-tended aphids develop faster, reproduce at a higher rate, and live longer than aphids not tended by ants. We used electrical penetration graphs (EPG) to investigate if behavioural patterns differ between ant-tended...

Université de Fribourg

Reproduction, fat metabolism, and life span: what is the connection?

Hansen, Malene ; Flatt, Thomas ; Aguilaniu, Hugo

In: Cell Metabolism, 2013, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 10–19

Reduced reproduction is associated with increased fat storage and prolonged life span in multiple organisms, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent studies in several species provide evidence that reproduction, fat metabolism, and longevity are directly coupled. For instance, germline removal in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans promotes longevity in part...

Université de Fribourg

Life-history evolution and the polyphenic regulation of somatic maintenance and survival

Flatt, Thomas ; Amdam, Gro V. ; Kirkwood, Thomas B. L. ; Omholt, Stig W.

In: The Quarterly Review of Biology, 2013, vol. 88, no. 3, p. 185–218

Here we discuss life-history evolution from the perspective of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, with a focus on polyphenisms for somatic maintenance and survival. Polyphenisms are adaptive discrete alternative phenotypes that develop in response to changes in the environment. We suggest that dauer larval diapause and its associated adult phenotypes in the nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans),...