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Università della Svizzera italiana

Conformational occlusion of blockade antibody epitopes, a novel mechanism of GII.4 human norovirus immune evasion

Lindesmith, Lisa C. ; Mallory, Michael L. ; Debbink, Kari ; Donaldson, Eric F. ; Brewer-Jensen, Paul D. ; Swann, Excel W. ; Sheahan, Timothy P. ; Graham, Rachel L. ; Beltramello, Martina ; Corti, Davide ; Lanzavecchia, Antonio ; Baric, Ralph S.

In: mSphere, 2018, vol. 3, no. 1, p. e00518-17

Extensive antigenic diversity within the GII.4 genotype of human norovirus is a major driver of pandemic emergence and a significant obstacle to development of cross- protective immunity after natural infection and vaccination. However, human and mouse monoclonal antibody studies indicate that, although rare, antibodies to conserved GII.4 blockade epitopes are generated. The mechanisms by...

Università della Svizzera italiana

SAMHD1 promotes DNA end resection to facilitate DNA repair by homologous recombination

Daddacha, Waaqo ; Koyen, Allyson E. ; Bastien, Amanda J. ; Head,Pamela Sara E. ; Dhere, Vishal R. ; Nabeta, Geraldine N. ; Connolly, Erin C. ; Werner, Erica ; Madden, Matthew Z. ; Daly, Michele B. ; Minten, Elizabeth V. ; Whelan, Donna R. ; Schlafstein, Ashley J. ; Zhang, Hui ; Anand, Roopesh ; Doronio, Christine ; Withers, Allison E. ; Shepard, Caitlin ; Sundaram, Ranjini K. ; Deng, Xingming ; Dynan, William S. ; Wang, Ya ; Bindra, Ranjit S. ; Cejka, Petr ; Rothenberg, Eli ; Doetsch, Paul W. ; Kim, Baek ; Yu, David S.

In: Cell reports, 2017, vol. 20, no. 8, p. 1921-1935

DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous recombination (HR) is initiated by CtIP/MRN-mediated DNA end resection to maintain genome integrity. SAMHD1 is a dNTP triphosphohydrolase, which restricts HIV- 1 infection, and mutations are associated with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and cancer. We show that SAMHD1 has a dNTPase-independent function in promoting DNA end resection to facilitate...

Université de Neuchâtel

Under-detection of endospore-forming Firmicutes in metagenomic data

Filippidou, Sevasti ; Junier, Thomas ; Wunderlin, Tina ; Lo, Chien-Chi ; Li, Po-E ; Chain, Patrick S ; Junier, Pilar

In: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal, 2015, vol. 13, p. 299-206

Microbial diversity studies based on metagenomic sequencing have greatly enhanced our knowledge of the microbial world. However, one caveat is the fact that not all microorganisms are equally well detected, questioning the universality of this approach. Firmicutes are known to be a dominant bacterial group. Several Firmicutes species are endospore formers and this property makes...

Università della Svizzera italiana

Induction of potent neutralizing antibody responses by a designed protein nanoparticle accine for respiratory syncytial virus

Marcandalli, Jessica ; Fiala, Brooke ; Ols, Sebastian ; Perotti, Michela ; de van der Schueren, Willem ; Snijder, Joost ; Hodge, Edgar ; Benhaim, Mark ; Ravichandran, Rashmi ; Carter, Lauren ; Sheffler, Will ; Brunner, Livia ; Lawrenz, Maria ; Dubois, Patrice ; Lanzavecchia, Antonio ; Sallusto, Federica ; Lee, Kelly K. ; Veesler, David ; Correnti, Colin E. ; Stewart, Lance J. ; Baker, David ; Loré, Karin ; Perez, Laurent ; King, Neil P.

In: Cell, 2019, vol. 177, no. 6, p. 1420-1431.e17

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a worldwide public health concern for which no vaccine is available. Elucidation of the prefusion structure of the RSV F glycoprotein and its identification as the main target of neutralizing antibodies have provided new opportunities for development of an effective vaccine. Here, we describe the structure-based design of a self-assembling protein ...

Università della Svizzera italiana

Shp-2 is critical for ERK and metabolic engagement downstream of IL-15 receptor in NK cells

Niogret, Charlène ; Miah, S. M. Shahjahan ; Rota, Giorgia ; Fonta, Nicolas P. ; Wang, Haiping ; Held, Werner ; Birchmeier, Walter ; Sexl, Veronica ; Yang, Wentian ; Vivier, Eric ; Ho, Ping-Chih ; Brossay, Laurent ; Guarda, Greta

In: Nature communications, 2019, vol. 10, p. 1444

The phosphatase Shp-2 was implicated in NK cell development and functions due to its interaction with NK inhibitory receptors, but its exact role in NK cells is still unclear. Here we show, using mice conditionally deficient for Shp-2 in the NK lineage, that NK cell development and responsiveness are largely unaffected. Instead, we find that Shp-2 serves mainly to enforce NK cell responses to...

Université de Fribourg

Quench dynamics and Hall response of interacting Chern insulators

Schüler, Michael ; Budich, Jan Carl ; Werner, Philipp

In: Physical Review B, 2019, vol. 100, no. 4, p. 041101

We study the coherent nonequilibrium dynamics of interacting two-dimensional systems after a quench from a trivial to a topological Chern insulator phase. While the many-body wave function is constrained to remain topologically trivial under local unitary evolution, we find that the Hall response of the system can dynamically approach a thermal value of the postquench Hamiltonian, even though...

Université de Fribourg

Dynamics of photodoped charge transfer insulators

Golež, Denis ; Boehnke, Lewin ; Eckstein, Martin ; Werner, Philipp

In: Physical Review B, 2019, vol. 100, no. 4, p. 041111

We study the dynamics of charge transfer insulators after photoexcitation using the three-band Emery model and a nonequilibrium extension of Hartree-Fock + EDMFT (extended dynamical mean field theory) and GW + EDMFT. While the equilibrium properties are accurately reproduced by the Hartree-Fock treatment of the ligand bands, dynamical correlations are essential for a proper description of the...

Université de Fribourg

Terahertz vortex beam as a spectroscopic probe of magnetic excitations

Sirenko, A. A. ; Maršík, Premysl ; Bernhard, Christian ; Stanislavchuk, T. N. ; Kiryukhin, V. ; Cheong, S.-W.

In: Physical Review Letters, 2019, vol. 122, no. 23, p. 237401

Circularly polarized light with spin angular momentum is one of the most valuable probes of magnetism. We demonstrate that light beams with orbital angular momentum (OAM), or vortex beams, can also couple to magnetism exhibiting dichroisms in a magnetized medium. Resonant optical absorption in a ferrimagnetic crystal depends strongly on both the handedness of the vortex and the direction of...

Università della Svizzera italiana

The Mre11-Nbs1 interface is essential for viability and tumor suppression

Kim, Jun Hyun ; Grosbart, Malgorzata ; Anand, Roopesh ; Wyman, Claire ; Cejka, Petr ; Petrini, John H.J.

In: Cell reports, 2017, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 496-507

The Mre11 complex (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) is integral to both DNA repair and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent DNA damage signaling. All three Mre11 complex components are essential for viability at the cellular and organismal levels. To delineate essential and non-essential Mre11 complex functions that are mediated by Nbs1, we used TALEN-based genome editing to derive Nbs1...

Università della Svizzera italiana

Restoration of replication fork stability in BRCA1- and BRCA2-deficient cells by inactivation of SNF2-family fork remodelers

Taglialatela, Angelo ; Alvarez, Silvia ; Leuzzi, Giuseppe ; Sannino, Vincenzo ; Ranjha, Lepakshi ; Huang, Jen-Wei ; Madubata, Chioma ; Anand, Roopesh ; Levy, Brynn ; Rabadan, Raul ; Cejka, Petr ; Costanzo, Vincenzo ; Ciccia, Alberto

In: Molecular Cell, 2017, vol. 68, no. 2, p. 414-430.e8

To ensure the completion of DNA replication and maintenance of genome integrity, DNA repair factors protect stalled replication forks upon replication stress. Previous studies have identified a critical role for the tumor suppressors BRCA1 and BRCA2 in preventing the degradation of nascent DNA by the MRE11 nuclease after replication stress. Here we show that depletion of SMARCAL1, a...