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Université de Fribourg

Which taxa are alien? Criteria, applications, and uncertainties

Essl, Franz ; Bacher, Sven ; Genovesi, Piero ; Hulme, Philip E. ; Jeschke, Jonathan M. ; Katsanevakis, Stelios ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Kühn, Ingolf ; Pyšek, Petr ; Rabitsch, Wolfgang ; Schindler, Stefan ; Kleunen, Mark van ; Vilà, Montserrat ; Wilson, John R. U. ; Richardson, David M.

In: BioScience, 2018, vol. 68, no. 7, p. 496–509

Human activities such as the transport of species to new regions and modifications of the environment are increasingly reshaping the distribution of biota. Accordingly, developing robust, repeatable, and consistent definitions of alien species that serve scientific and policy purposes has become of prime importance. We provide a set of classification criteria that are widely applicable across...

Université de Fribourg

Troubling travellers: are ecologically harmful alien species associated with particular introduction pathways?

Pergl, Jan ; Pyšek, Petr ; Bacher, Sven ; Essl, Franz ; Genovesi, Piero ; Harrower, Colin A. ; Hulme, Philip E. ; Jeschke, Jonathan M. ; Kenis, Marc ; Kühn, Ingolf ; Perglová, Irena ; Rabitsch, Wolfgang ; Roques, Alain ; Roy, David B. ; Roy, Helen E. ; Vilà, Montserrat ; Winter, Marten ; Nentwig, Wolfgang

In: NeoBiota, 2017, vol. 32, p. 1–20

Prioritization of introduction pathways is seen as an important component of the management of biological invasions. We address whether established alien plants, mammals, freshwater fish and terrestrial invertebrates with known ecological impacts are associated with particular introduction pathways (release, escape, contaminant, stowaway, corridor and unaided). We used the information from...

Université de Fribourg

Framework and guidelines for implementing the proposed IUCN Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT)

Hawkins, Charlotte L. ; Bacher, Sven ; Essl, Franz ; Hulme, Philip E. ; Jeschke, Jonathan M. ; Kühn, Ingolf ; Kumschick, Sabrina ; Nentwig, Wolfgang ; Pergl, Jan ; Pyšek, Petr ; Rabitsch, Wolfgang ; Richardson, David M. ; Vilà, Montserrat ; Wilson, John R.U. ; Genovesi, Piero ; Blackburn, Tim M.

In: Diversity and Distributions, 2015, vol. 21, no. 11, p. 1360–1363

Recently, Blackburn et al. (2014) developed a simple, objective and transparent method for classifying alien taxa in terms of the magnitude of their detrimental environmental impacts in recipient areas. Here, we present a comprehensive framework and guidelines for implementing this method, which we term the Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa, or EICAT. We detail criteria for...

Université de Fribourg

Crossing Frontiers in Tackling Pathways of Biological Invasions

Essl, Franz ; Bacher, Sven ; Blackburn, Tim M. ; Booy, Olaf ; Brundu, Giuseppe ; Brunel, Sarah ; Cardoso, Ana-Cristina ; Eschen, René ; Gallardo, Belinda ; Galil, Bella ; García-Berthou, Emili ; Genovesi, Piero ; Groom, Quentin ; Harrower, Colin ; Hulme, Philip E. ; Katsanevakis, Stelios ; Kenis, Marc ; Kühn, Ingolf ; Kumschick, Sabrina ; Martinou, Angeliki F. ; Nentwig, Wolfgang ; O'Flynn, Colette ; Pagad, Shyama ; Pergl, Jan ; Pyšek, Petr ; Rabitsch, Wolfgang ; Richardson, David M. ; Roques, Alain ; Roy, Helen E. ; Scalera, Riccardo ; Schindler, Stefan ; Seebens, Hanno ; Vanderhoeven, Sonia ; Vilà, Montserrat ; Wilson, John R. U.

In: BioScience, 2015, vol. 65, no. 8, p. 769–782

Substantial progress has been made in understanding how pathways underlie and mediate biological invasions. However, key features of their role in invasions remain poorly understood, available knowledge is widely scattered, and major frontiers in research and management are insufficiently characterized. We review the state of the art, highlight recent advances, identify pitfalls and constraints,...

Université de Fribourg

Ecological impacts of alien species: quantification, scope, caveats, and recommendations

Kumschick, Sabrina ; Gaertner, Mirijam ; Vilà, Montserrat ; Essl, Franz ; Jeschke, Jonathan M. ; Pyšek, Petr ; Ricciardi, Anthony ; Bacher, Sven ; Blackburn, Tim M. ; Dick, Jaimie T.A. ; Evans, Thomas ; Hulme, Philip E. ; Kühn, Ingolf ; Mrugała, Agata ; Pergl, Jan ; Rabitsch, Wolfgang ; Richardson, David M. ; Sendek, Agnieszka ; Winter, Marten

In: BioScience, 2015, vol. 65, no. 1, p. 55–63

Despite intensive research during the past decade on the effects of alien species, invasion science still lacks the capacity to accurately predict the impacts of those species and, therefore, to provide timely advice to managers on where limited resources should be allocated. This capacity has been limited partly by the context-dependent nature of ecological impacts, research highly skewed toward...

Université de Fribourg

Explaining the variation in impacts of non-native plants on local-scale species richness: the role of phylogenetic relatedness

Vilà, Montserrat ; Rohr, Rudolf P. ; Espinar, José L. ; Hulme, Philip E. ; Pergl, Jan ; Roux, Johannes J. Le ; Schaffner, Urs ; Pyšek, Petr

In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, 2014, p. -

Aim: To assess how the magnitude of impacts of non-native plants on species richness of resident plants and animals varies in relation to the traits and phylogenetic position of the non-native as well as characteristics of the invaded site.Location: Global.Methods: Meta-analysis and phylogenetic regressions based on 216 studies were used to examine the effects of 96 non-native plant species on...

Université de Fribourg

A unified classification of alien species based on the magnitude of their environmental impacts

Blackburn, Tim M. ; Essl, Franz ; Evans, Thomas ; Hulme, Philip E. ; Jeschke, Jonathan M. ; Kühn, Ingolf ; Kumschick, Sabrina ; Marková, Zuzana ; Mrugała, Agata ; Nentwig, Wolfgang ; Pergl, Jan ; Pyšek, Petr ; Rabitsch, Wolfgang ; Ricciardi, Anthony ; Richardson, David M. ; Sendek, Agnieszka ; Vilà, Montserrat ; Wilson, John R. U. ; Winte, Marten ; Genovesi, Piero ; Bacher, Sven

In: PLoS Biol, 2014, vol. 12, no. 5, p. e1001850

Species moved by human activities beyond the limits of their native geographic ranges into areas in which they do not naturally occur (termed aliens) can cause a broad range of significant changes to recipient ecosystems; however, their impacts vary greatly across species and the ecosystems into which they are introduced. There is therefore a critical need for a standardised method to evaluate,...

Université de Fribourg

Defining the Impact of Non-Native Species

Jeschke, Jonathan M. ; Bacher, Sven ; Blackburn, Tim M. ; Dick, Jaimie T.A. ; Essl, Franz ; Evans, Thomas ; Gaertner, Mirijam ; Hulme, Philip E. ; Kühn, Ingolf ; MrugałA, Agata ; Pergl, Jan ; Pyšek, Petr ; Rabitsch, Wolfgang ; Ricciardi, Anthony ; Richardson, David M. ; Sendek, Agnieszka ; Vilà, Montserrat ; Winter, Marten ; Kumschick, Sabrina

In: Conservation Biology, 2014, p. -

Non-native species cause changes in the ecosystems to which they are introduced. These changes, or some of them, are usually termed impacts; they can be manifold and potentially damaging to ecosystems and biodiversity. However, the impacts of most non-native species are poorly understood, and a synthesis of available information is being hindered because authors often do not clearly define...