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Université de Fribourg

Distinct genomic signals of lifespan and life history evolution in response to postponed reproduction and larval diet in Drosophila

Hoedjes, Katja M. ; van den Heuvel, Joost ; Kapun, Martin ; Keller, Laurent ; Flatt, Thomas ; Zwaan, Bas J.

In: Evolution Letters, 2019, p. -

Reproduction and diet are two major factors controlling the physiology of aging and life history, but how they interact to affect the evolution of longevity is unknown. Moreover, although studies of large‐effect mutants suggest an important role of nutrient sensing pathways in regulating aging, the genetic basis of evolutionary changes in lifespan remains poorly understood. To address these...

Université de Fribourg

A clinal polymorphism in the insulin signaling transcription factor foxo contributes to life-history adaptation in Drosophila*

Durmaz, Esra ; Rajpurohit, Subhash ; Betancourt, Nicolas ; Fabian, Daniel K. ; Kapun, Martin ; Schmidt, Paul ; Flatt, Thomas

In: Evolution, 2019, vol. 73, no. 9, p. 1774–1792

A fundamental aim of adaptation genomics is to identify polymorphisms that underpin variation in fitness traits. In Drosophila melanogaster, latitudinal life‐history clines exist on multiple continents and make an excellent system for dissecting the genetics of adaptation. We have previously identified numerous clinal single‐nucleotide polymorphism in insulin/insulin‐like growth factor...

Université de Fribourg

The adaptive significance of chromosomal inversion polymorphisms in Drosophila melanogaster

Kapun, Martin ; Flatt, Thomas

In: Molecular Ecology, 2019, vol. 28, no. 6, p. 1263–1282

Chromosomal inversions, structural mutations that reverse a segment of a chromosome, cause suppression of recombination in the heterozygous state. Several studies have shown that inversion polymorphisms can form clines or fluctuate predictably in frequency over seasonal time spans. These observations prompted the hypothesis that chromosomal rearrangements might be subject to spatially and/or ...

Université de Fribourg

Size and shape: the developmental regulation of static allometry in insects

Shingleton, Alexander W. ; Frankino, W. Anthony ; Flatt, Thomas ; Nijhout, H. Frederik ; Emlen, Douglas J.

In: BioEssays, 2007, vol. 29, no. 6, p. 536-548

Among all organisms, the size of each body part or organ scales with overall body size, a phenomenon called allometry. The study of shape and form has attracted enormous interest from biologists, but the genetic, developmental and physiological mechanisms that control allometry and the proportional growth of parts have remained elusive. Recent progress in our understanding of body‐size...

Université de Fribourg

What is metamorphosis?

Bishop, C. D. ; Erezyilmaz, D. F. rsity ; Flatt, Thomas ; Georgiou, C. D. ; Hadfield, M. G. ; Heyland, A. ; Hodin, J. ; Jacobs, M. W. ; Malakova, S. A. ; Pires, A. ; Reitzel, A. M. ; Santagata, S. ; Tanaka, K. ; Youson, J. H.

In: Integrative and Comparative Biology, 2006, vol. 46, no. 6, p. 655–661

Metamorphosis (Gr. meta- “change” + morphe “form”) as a biological process is generally attributed to a subset of animals: most famously insects and amphibians, but some fish and many marine invertebrates as well. We held a symposium at the 2006 Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology (SICB) annual meeting in Orlando, FL (USA) to discuss metamorphosis in a comparative context....

Université de Fribourg

Reproductive and post-reproductive life history of wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster under laboratory conditions

Klepsatel, P. ; Gáliková, M. ; De Maio, N. ; Ricci, S. ; Schlötterer, C. ; Flatt, Thomas

In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 2013, vol. 26, no. 7, p. 1508–1520

The life history of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) is well understood, but fitness components are rarely measured by following single individuals over their lifetime, thereby limiting insights into lifetime reproductive success, reproductive senescence and post‐reproductive lifespan. Moreover, most studies have examined long‐ established laboratory strains rather than freshly...

Université de Fribourg

The evolutionary genetics of canalization

Flatt, Thomas

In: The Quarterly Review of Biology, 2005, vol. 80, no. 3, p. 287-316

Evolutionary genetics has recently made enormous progress in understanding how genetic variation maps into phenotypic variation. However, why some traits are phenotypically invariant despite apparent genetic and environmental changes has remained a major puzzle. In the 1940s, Conrad Hal Waddington coined the concept and term “canalization” to describe the robustness of phenotypes to...

Université de Fribourg

The diversity of population responses to environmental change

Colchero, Fernando ; Jones, Owen R. ; Conde, Dalia A. ; Hodgson, David ; Zajitschek, Felix ; Schmidt, Benedikt R. ; Malo, Aurelio F. ; Alberts, Susan C. ; Becker, Peter H. ; Bouwhuis, Sandra ; Bronikowski, Anne M. ; Vleeschouwer, Kristel M. ; Delahay, Richard J. ; Dummermuth, Stefan ; Fernández‐Duque, Eduardo ; Frisenvænge, John ; Hesselsøe, Martin ; Larson, Sam ; Lemaître, Jean‐François ; McDonald, Jennifer ; Miller, David A.W. ; O'Donnell, Colin ; Packer, Craig ; Raboy, Becky E. ; Reading, Chris J. ; Wapstra, Erik ; Weimerskirch, Henri ; While, Geoffrey M. ; Baudisch, Annette ; Flatt, Thomas ; Coulson, Tim ; Gaillard, Jean‐Michel

In: Ecology Letters, 2019, p. -

The current extinction and climate change crises pressure us to predict population dynamics with ever‐greater accuracy. Although predictions rest on the well‐advanced theory of age‐structured populations, two key issues remain poorly explored. Specifically, how the age‐dependency in demographic rates and the year‐to‐year interactions between survival and fecundity affect...

Université de Fribourg

An inversion supergene in Drosophila underpins latitudinal clines in survival traits

Durmaz, Esra ; Benson, Clare ; Kapun, Martin ; Schmidt, Paul ; Flatt, Thomas

In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 2018, vol. 31, no. 9, p. 1354–1364

Chromosomal inversions often contribute to local adaptation across latitudinal clines, but the underlying selective mechanisms remain poorly understood. We and others have previously shown that a clinal inversion polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster, In(3R)Payne, underpins body size clines along the North American and Australian east coasts. Here, we ask whether this polymorphism also...

Consortium of Swiss Academic Libraries

Plasticity of lifespan: a reaction norm perspective

Flatt, Thomas

In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 2014, vol. 73, no. 4, p. 532-542