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Université de Fribourg

An inversion supergene in Drosophila underpins latitudinal clines in survival traits

Durmaz, Esra ; Benson, Clare ; Kapun, Martin ; Schmidt, Paul ; Flatt, Thomas

In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 2018, vol. 31, no. 9, p. 1354–1364

Chromosomal inversions often contribute to local adaptation across latitudinal clines, but the underlying selective mechanisms remain poorly understood. We and others have previously shown that a clinal inversion polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster, In(3R)Payne, underpins body size clines along the North American and Australian east coasts. Here, we ask whether this polymorphism also...

Université de Fribourg

Horizons in the evolution of aging

Flatt, Thomas ; Partridge, Linda

In: BMC Biology, 2018, vol. 16, no. 1, p. 93

Between the 1930s and 50s, evolutionary biologists developed a successful theory of why organisms age, firmly rooted in population genetic principles. By the 1980s the evolution of aging had a secure experimental basis. Since the force of selection declines with age, aging evolves due to mutation accumulation or a benefit to fitness early in life. Here we review major insights and challenges...

Université de Fribourg

The interplay between immunity and aging in Drosophila

Garschall, Kathrin ; Flatt, Thomas

In: F1000Research, 2018, vol. 7, p. 160

Here, we provide a brief review of the mechanistic connections between immunity and aging—a fundamental biological relationship that remains poorly understood—by considering two intertwined questions: how does aging affect immunity, and how does immunity affect aging? On the one hand, aging contributes to the deterioration of immune function and predisposes the organism to infections...

Université de Fribourg

Aminergic signaling controls ovarian dormancy in drosophila

Andreatta, Gabriele ; Kyriacou, Charalambos P. ; Flatt, Thomas ; Costa, Rodolfo

In: Scientific Reports, 2018, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 2030

In response to adverse environmental conditions many organisms from nematodes to mammals deploy a dormancy strategy, causing states of developmental or reproductive arrest that enhance somatic maintenance and survival ability at the expense of growth or reproduction. Dormancy regulation has been studied in C. elegans and in several insects, but how neurosensory mechanisms act to relay ...

Université de Fribourg

Amino acid modulation of lifespan and reproduction in Drosophila

Hoedjes, Katja M ; Rodrigues, Marisa A ; Flatt, Thomas

In: Current Opinion in Insect Science, 2017, vol. 23, p. 118–122

Manipulating amino acid (AA) intake in Drosophila can profoundly affect lifespan and reproduction. Remarkably, AA manipulation can uncouple the commonly observed trade-off between these traits. This finding seems to challenge the idea that this trade- off is due to competitive resource allocation, but here we argue that this view might be too simplistic. We also discuss the mechanisms of the...

Consortium of Swiss Academic Libraries

Plasticity of lifespan: a reaction norm perspective

Flatt, Thomas

In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 2014, vol. 73, no. 4, p. 532-542

Université de Fribourg

Juvenile hormone as a regulator of the trade-off between reproduction and life span in Drosophila melanogaster

Flatt, Thomas ; Kawecki, Tadeusz J.

In: Evolution, 2007, vol. 61, no. 8, p. 1980–1991

Trade-offs between reproduction and life span are ubiquitous, but little is known about their underlying mechanisms. Here we combine treatment with the juvenile hormone analog (JHa) methoprene and experimental evolution in Drosophila melanogaster to study the potential role of juvenile hormone (JH) in mediating such trade-offs at both the physiological and evolutionary level. Exposure to...

Université de Fribourg

Winter weather affects asp viper Vipera aspis population dynamics through susceptible juveniles

Altwegg, Res ; Dummermuth, Stefan ; Anholt, Bradley R. ; Flatt, Thomas

In: Oikos, 2005, vol. 110 (1), p. 55

Detailed studies on mammals and birds have shown that the effects of climate variation on population dynamics often depend on population composition, because weather affects different subsets of a population differently. It is presently unknown whether this is also true for ectothermic animals such as reptiles. Here we show such an interaction between weather and demography for an ectothermic...

Université de Fribourg

Stabilizing factors interact in promoting host–parasite coexistence

Flatt, Thomas ; Scheuring, István

In: Journal of Theoretical Biology, 2004, vol. 228(2), p. 241

Understanding the mechanisms that promote coexistence among species is a fundamental problem in evolutionary ecology. Such mechanisms include environmental noise, spatial population structure, density dependence, and genetic variation. In natural populations such factors may exert combined effects on coexistence. Thus, to disentangle the contribution of several factors to coexistence, their...

Université de Fribourg

Assessing natural variation in genes affecting Drosophila lifespan

Flatt, Thomas

In: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 2004, vol. 125(3), p. 155