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Université de Fribourg

Quantitative imaging of water, ice and air in permafrost systems through petrophysical joint inversion of seismic refraction and electrical resistivity data

Wagner, Florian ; Mollaret, Coline ; Günther, Thomas ; Kemna, Andreas

In: Geophysical Journal International, 2019, vol. 219, no. 3, p. 1866–1875

Quantitative estimation of pore fractions filled with liquid water, ice and air is crucial for a process-based understanding of permafrost and its hazard potential upon climate- induced degradation. Geophysical methods offer opportunities to image distributions of permafrost constituents in a non-invasive manner. We present a method to jointly estimate the volumetric fractions of liquid water,...

Université de Fribourg

Two-dimensional inversion of wideband spectral data from the capacitively coupled resistivity method – first applications in periglacial environments

Mudler, Jan ; Hördt, Andreas ; Przyklenk, Anita ; Fiandaca, Gianluca ; Maurya, Pradip Kumar ; Hauck, Christian

In: The Cryosphere, 2019, vol. 13, no. 9, p. 2439–2456

The DC resistivity method is a common tool in periglacial research because it can delineate zones of large resistivities, which are often associated with frozen water. The interpretation can be ambiguous, however, because large resistivities may also have other causes, like solid dry rock. One possibility to reduce the ambiguity is to measure the frequency-dependent resistivity. At low...

Université de Neuchâtel

Evolution of the "Castanea sativa" - "Dryocosmus kuriphilus" - "Torymus sinensis" - system in southern Switzerland

Gehring, Eric ; Aebi, Alexandre (Dir.) ; Conedera, Marco (Codir.)

Thèse de doctorat : Université de Neuchâtel, 2019.

The arrival of new organisms that may potentially become harmful for people and ecosystems has become a world-wide daily concern to the point that in Switzerland about 800 established alien species exist, of which at least 107 are considered invasive. A possible way to control such pests is by importing and releasing natural enemies from their countries of origin, letting them to act as so-called...

Université de Fribourg

Mountain permafrost degradation documented through a network of permanent electrical resistivity tomography sites

Mollaret, Coline ; Hilbich, Christin ; Pellet, Cécile ; Flores-Orozco, Adrian ; Delaloye, Reynald ; Hauck, Christian

In: The Cryosphere, 2019, vol. 13, no. 10, p. 2557–2578

Mountain permafrost is sensitive to climate change and is expected to gradually degrade in response to the ongoing atmospheric warming trend. Long-term monitoring of the permafrost thermal state is a key task, but problematic where temperatures are close to 0 ∘C because the energy exchange is then dominantly related to latent heat effects associated with phase change (ice–water), rather...

Université de Fribourg

A literal elytral rainbow: tunable structural colors using single diamond biophotonic crystals in Pachyrrhynchus congestus weevils

Wilts, Bodo D. ; Saranathan, Vinodkumar

In: Small, 2018, vol. 14, no. 46, p. 1802328

The brilliant colors of many insects arise from the interference of incident light with complex nanostructured biomaterials that are present in their cuticle. Here, the rainbow‐colored spots on the elytra of a snout weevil, Pachyrrhynchus congestus pavonius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), are investigated using synchrotron small‐angle X‐ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy,...

Université de Fribourg

Thin-film structural coloration from simple fused scales in moths

Kilchoer, Cédric ; Steiner, Ullrich ; Wilts, Bodo D.

In: Interface Focus, 2019, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 20180044

The metallic colouration of insects often originates from diverse nanostructures ranging from simple thin films to complex three-dimensional photonic crystals. In Lepidoptera, structural colouration is widely present and seems to be abundant in extant species. However, even some basal moths exhibit metallic colouration. Here, we have investigated the origin of the vivid metallic colours of...

Université de Fribourg

Diagram, valence-to-core, and hypersatellite Kβ X-ray transitions in metallic chromium

Zeeshan, Faisal ; Hoszowska, Joanna ; Dousse, Jean-Claude ; Sokaras, Dimosthenis ; Weng, Tsu-Chien ; Alonso-Mori, Roberto ; Kavčič, Matjaz ; Guerra, Mauro ; Sampaio, Jorge Miguel ; Parente, Fernando ; Indelicato, Paul ; Marques, José Pires ; Santos, José Paulo

In: X-Ray Spectrometry, 2019, vol. 48, no. 5, p. 351–359

We report on measurements of the Kβ diagram, valence‐to‐core (VtC), and hypersatellite X‐ray spectra induced in metallic Cr by photon single and double K‐shell ionization. The experiment was carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource using the seven‐crystal Johann‐type hard X‐ray spectrometer of the beamline 6‐2. For the Kβ diagram and VtC transitions, the...

Università della Svizzera italiana

Dissecting human antibody responses: useful, basic and surprising findings

Lanzavecchia, Antonio

In: EMBO molecular medicine, 2018, vol. 10, p. e8879

Human memory B cells and plasma cells represent a rich source of antibodies that have been selected in response to human pathogens. In the last decade, different methods have been developed to interrogate the human memory repertoire and isolate monoclonal antibodies. I will discuss how a target‐agnostic approach based on high‐throughput screening of antibodies produced by cultured B cells...