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Université de Fribourg

Cross-fertilizing weed science and plant invasion science to improve efficient management: A European challenge

Müller-Schärer, Heinz ; Sun, Yan ; Chauvel, Bruno ; Karrer, Gerhard ; Kazinczi, Gabriella ; Kudsk, P. ; Lansink Oud, A. G. J. M. ; Schaffner, Urs ; Skjoth, C. A. ; Smith, M. ; Vurro, M. ; de Weger, L. A. ; Lommen, Suzanne T. E.

In: Basic and Applied Ecology, 2018, vol. 33, p. 1–13

Both weed science and plant invasion science deal with noxious plants. Yet, they have historically developed as two distinct research areas in Europe, with different target species, approaches and management aims, as well as with diverging institutions and researchers involved. We argue that the strengths of these two disciplines can be highly complementary in implementing management...

Université de Fribourg

The diversity of population responses to environmental change

Colchero, Fernando ; Jones, Owen R. ; Conde, Dalia A. ; Hodgson, David ; Zajitschek, Felix ; Schmidt, Benedikt R. ; Malo, Aurelio F. ; Alberts, Susan C. ; Becker, Peter H. ; Bouwhuis, Sandra ; Bronikowski, Anne M. ; Vleeschouwer, Kristel M. ; Delahay, Richard J. ; Dummermuth, Stefan ; Fernández‐Duque, Eduardo ; Frisenvænge, John ; Hesselsøe, Martin ; Larson, Sam ; Lemaître, Jean‐François ; McDonald, Jennifer ; Miller, David A.W. ; O'Donnell, Colin ; Packer, Craig ; Raboy, Becky E. ; Reading, Chris J. ; Wapstra, Erik ; Weimerskirch, Henri ; While, Geoffrey M. ; Baudisch, Annette ; Flatt, Thomas ; Coulson, Tim ; Gaillard, Jean‐Michel

In: Ecology Letters, 2019, p. -

The current extinction and climate change crises pressure us to predict population dynamics with ever‐greater accuracy. Although predictions rest on the well‐advanced theory of age‐structured populations, two key issues remain poorly explored. Specifically, how the age‐dependency in demographic rates and the year‐to‐year interactions between survival and fecundity affect...

Université de Fribourg

Evolution of longevity improves immunity in Drosophila

Fabian, Daniel K. ; Garschall, Kathrin ; Klepsatel, Peter ; Santos-Matos, Gonçalo ; Sucena, Élio ; Kapun, Martin ; Lemaitre, Bruno ; Schlötterer, Christian ; Arking, Robert ; Flatt, Thomas

In: Evolution Letters, 2018, vol. 2, no. 6, p. 567–579

Much has been learned about the genetics of aging from studies in model organisms, but still little is known about naturally occurring alleles that contribute to variation in longevity. For example, analysis of mutants and transgenes has identified insulin signaling as a major regulator of longevity, yet whether standing variation in this pathway underlies microevolutionary changes in...

Università della Svizzera italiana

Human IFN-γ immunity to mycobacteria is governed by both IL-12 and IL-23

Markle, Janet G. ; Martínez-Barricarte, Rubén ; Ma, Cindy S. ; Deenick, Elissa K. ; Ramírez-Alejo, Noé ; Mele, Federico ; Latorre, Daniela ; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza ; Aytekin, Caner ; Mansouri, Davood ; Bryant, Vanessa L. ; Jabot-Hanin, Fabienne ; Deswarte, Caroline ; Nieto-Patlán, Alejandro ; Surace, Laura ; Kerner, Gaspard ; Itan, Yuval ; Jovic, Sandra ; Avery, Danielle T. ; Wong, Natalie ; Rao, Geetha ; Patin, Etienne ; Okada, Satoshi ; Bigio, Benedetta ; Boisson, Bertrand ; Rapaport, Franck ; Seeleuthner, Yoann ; Schmidt, Monika ; Ikinciogullari, Aydan ; Dogu, Figen ; Tanir, Gonul ; Tabarsi, Payam ; Bloursaz, Mohammed Reza ; Joseph, Julia K. ; Heer, Avneet ; Kong, Xiao-Fei ; Migaud, Mélanie ; Lazarov, Tomi ; Geissmann, Frédéric ; Fleckenstein, Bernhard ; Lindestam Arlehamn, Cecilia ; Sette, Alessandro ; Puel, Anne ; Emile, Jean-François ; Vosse, Esther van de ; Quintana-Murci, Lluis ; Di Santo, James P. ; Abel, Laurent ; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie ; Bustamante, Jacinta ; Tangye, Stuart G. ; Sallusto, Federica ; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

In: Science Immunology, 2018, vol. 3, no. 30, p. eaau6759

Hundreds of patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL-12p40 or IL-12Rß1 deficiency have been diagnosed over the last 20 years. They typically suffer from invasive mycobacteriosis and, occasionally, from mucocutaneous candidiasis. Susceptibility to these infections is thought to be due to impairments of IL-12–dependent IFN-? immunity and IL-23–dependent IL-17A/IL-17F immunity,...

Université de Neuchâtel

The Analysis of Implicit Premises within Children’s Argumentative Inferences

Greco, Sara ; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly ; Iannaccone, Antonio ; Rocci, Andrea ; Convertini, Josephine ; Schär, Rebecca Gabriela

In: Informal Logic, 2018, vol. 38, no. 4, p. 438-470

Cette contribution présente les résultats préliminaires du projet «Analyse de l’argumentation implicite des enfants: reconstruction des pré-misses procédurales et matérielles». Ce projet interdisciplinaire s’appuie sur la théorie de l’argumentation et sur la psychologie socioculturelle du développement pour étudier l’argumentation des enfants. Nous reconstruisons les...

Accès public à partir du 1 nov. 2019
Université de Neuchâtel

Towards a Holarctic synthesis of peatland testate amoeba ecology : Development of a new continental-scale palaeohydrological transfer function for North America and comparison to European data

Amesbury, Matthew J ; Booth, Robert K ; Roland, Thomas P ; Bunbury, Joan ; Clifford, Michael J ; Charman, Dan J ; Elliot, Suzanne ; Finkelstein, Sarah ; Garneau, Michelle ; Hughes, Paul D.M ; Lamarre, Alexandre ; Loisel, Julie ; Mackay, Helen ; Magnan, Gabriel ; Markel, Erin R ; Mitchell, Edward A.D ; Payne, Richard J ; Pelletier, Nicolas ; Roe, Helen ; Sullivan, Maura E ; Swindles, Graeme T ; Talbot, Julie ; van Bellen, Simon ; Warner, Barry G

In: Quaternary Science Reviews, 2018, vol. 201, p. 483-500

Fossil testate amoeba assemblages have been used to reconstruct peatland palaeohydrology for more than two decades. While transfer function training sets are typically of local-to regional-scale in extent, combining those data to cover broad ecohydrological gradients, from the regional-to continental- and hemispheric-scales, is useful to assess if ecological optima of species vary geographically...

Université de Fribourg

Neuronal inputs and outputs of aging and longevity

Alcedo, Joy ; Flatt, Thomas ; Pasyukova, Elena G.

In: Frontiers in Genetics, 2013, vol. 4, p. -

An animal’s survival strongly depends on its ability to maintain homeostasis in response to the changing quality of its external and internal environment. This is achieved through intracellular and intercellular communication within and among different tissues. One of the organ systems that plays a major role in this communication and the maintenance of homeostasis is the nervous system....

Université de Fribourg

Alterations in the cortical control of standing posture during varying levels of postural threat and task difficulty

Tokuno, Craig D. ; Keller, Martin ; Carpenter, Mark G. ; Márquez, Gonzalo ; Taube, Wolfgang

In: Journal of Neurophysiology, 2018, vol. 120, no. 3, p. 1010–1016

Cortical excitability increases during the performance of more difficult postural tasks. However, it is possible that changes in postural threat associated with more difficult tasks may in themselves lead to alterations in the neural strategies underlying postural control. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether changes in postural threat are responsible for the...

Université de Fribourg

Configuration of electrical spinal cord stimulation through real-time processing of gait kinematics

Capogrosso, Marco ; Wagner, Fabien B. ; Gandar, Jerome ; Moraud, Eduardo Martin ; Wenger, Nikolaus ; Milekovic, Tomislav ; Shkorbatova, Polina ; Pavlova, Natalia ; Musienko, Pavel ; Bezard, Erwan ; Bloch, Jocelyne ; Courtine, Grégoire

In: Nature Protocols, 2018, vol. 13, no. 9, p. 2031–2061

Epidural electrical stimulation (EES) of the spinal cord and real-time processing of gait kinematics are powerful methods for the study of locomotion and the improvement of motor control after injury or in neurological disorders. Here, we describe equipment and surgical procedures that can be used to acquire chronic electromyographic (EMG) recordings from leg muscles and to implant targeted...

Université de Fribourg

The case of GWAS of obesity: does body weight control play by the rules?

Müller, Manfred J. ; Geisler, Corinna ; Blundell, John ; Dulloo, Abdul ; Schutz, Yves ; Krawczak, Michael ; Bosy-Westphal, Anja ; Enderle, Janna ; Heymsfield, Steven B.

In: International Journal of Obesity, 2018, vol. 42, no. 8, p. 1395–1405

As yet, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not added much to our understanding of the mechanisms of body weight control and of the etiology of obesity. This shortcoming is widely attributed to the complexity of the issues. The appeal of this explanation notwithstanding, we surmise that (i) an oversimplification of the phenotype (namely by the use of crude anthropometric traits) and...