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Université de Neuchâtel

From Asia to Europe : evaluation of parasitoids for the biological control of the invasive fruit pest "Drosophila suzukii"

Girod, Pierre ; Turlings, Ted (Dir.)

Thèse de doctorat : Université de Neuchâtel, 2018.

La production agricole est en constante évolution afin d’améliorer le rendement. Actuellement, 40% de la production agricole est perdue à cause des ravageurs des cultures (majoritairement des insectes exotiques). Leur contrôle est une des priorités majeures à laquelle les chercheurs font face aujourd’hui. Le commerce international et le changement climatique ont accéléré la...

Université de Fribourg

Permafrost is warming at a global scale

Biskaborn, Boris K. ; Smith, Sharon L. ; Noetzli, Jeannette ; Matthes, Heidrun ; Vieira, Gonçalo ; Streletskiy, Dmitry A. ; Schoeneich, Philippe ; Romanovsky, Vladimir E. ; Lewkowicz, Antoni G. ; Abramov, Andrey ; Allard, Michel ; Boike, Julia ; Cable, William L. ; Christiansen, Hanne H. ; Delaloye, Reynald ; Diekmann, Bernhard ; Drozdov, Dmitry ; Etzelmüller, Bernd ; Grosse, Guido ; Guglielmin, Mauro ; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas ; Isaksen, Ketil ; Ishikawa, Mamoru ; Johansson, Margareta ; Johannsson, Halldor ; Joo, Anseok ; Kaverin, Dmitry ; Kholodov, Alexander ; Konstantinov, Pavel ; Kröger, Tim ; Lambiel, Christophe ; Lanckman, Jean-Pierre ; Luo, Dongliang ; Malkova, Galina ; Meiklejohn, Ian ; Moskalenko, Natalia ; Oliva, Marc ; Phillips, Marcia ; Ramos, Miguel ; Sannel, A. Britta K. ; Sergeev, Dmitrii ; Seybold, Cathy ; Skryabin, Pavel ; Vasiliev, Alexander ; Wu, Qingbai ; Yoshikawa, Kenji ; Zheleznyak, Mikhail ; Lantuit, Hugues

In: Nature Communications, 2019, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 264

Permafrost warming has the potential to amplify global climate change, because when frozen sediments thaw it unlocks soil organic carbon. Yet to date, no globally consistent assessment of permafrost temperature change has been compiled. Here we use a global data set of permafrost temperature time series from the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost to evaluate temperature change across...

Université de Fribourg

dSir2 and Dmp53 interact to mediate aspects of CR‐dependent life span extension in D. melanogaster

Bauer, Johannes H. ; Morris, Siti Nur Sarah ; Chang, Chenguyi ; Flatt, Thomas ; Wood, Jason G. ; Helfand, Stephen L.

In: Aging, 2009, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 38-48

Calorie Restriction (CR) is a well established method of extending life span in a variety of organisms. In the fruit fly D. melanogaster, CR is mediated at least in part by activation of dSir2. In mammalian systems, one of the critical targets of Sir2 is the tumor suppressor p53. This deacetylation of p53 by Sir2 leads to inhibition of p53's transcriptional activity. We have recently shown that...

Université de Fribourg

Drosophila germ-line modulation of insulin signaling and lifespan

Flatt, Thomas ; Min, Kyung-Jin ; D'Alterio, Cecilia ; Villa-Cuesta, Eugenia ; Cumbers, John ; Lehmann, Ruth ; Jones, D. Leanne ; Tatar, Marc

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2008, vol. 105, no. 17, p. 6368–6373

Ablation of germ-line precursor cells in Caenorhabditis elegans extends lifespan by activating DAF-16, a forkhead transcription factor (FOXO) repressed by insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling (IIS). Signals from the gonad might thus regulate whole-organism aging by modulating IIS. To date, the details of this systemic regulation of aging by the reproductive system are not...

Université de Fribourg

Paying the costs of reproduction

Flatt, Thomas

In: eLife, 2015, vol. 4, p. e09556

When a female fly mates it produces a hormone that increases the size of its midgut and enhances fat metabolism in order to provide the energy needed for reproduction.

Université de Fribourg

Comparing thyroid and insect hormone signaling

Flatt, Thomas ; Moroz, Leonid L. ; Tatar, Marc ; Heyland, Andreas

In: Integrative and Comparative Biology, 2006, vol. 46, no. 6, p. 777-794

Transitions between different states of development, physiology, and life history are typically mediated by hormones. In insects, metamorphosis and reproductive maturation are regulated by an interaction between the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone (JH) and the steroid 20-hydroxy-ecdysone (20E). In vertebrates and some marine invertebrates, the lipophilic thyroid hormones (THs) affect...

Université de Fribourg

Hormonal pleiotropy and the juvenile hormone regulation of Drosophila development and life history

Flatt, Thomas ; Tu, Meng-Ping ; Tatar, Marc

In: BioEssays, 2005, vol. 27, no. 10, p. 999-1010

Understandinghowtraits are integrated at the organismal level remains a fundamental problem at the interface of developmental and evolutionary biology. Hormones, regulatory signaling molecules that coordinate multiple developmental and physiological processes, are major determinants underlying phenotypic integration. The probably best example for this is the lipid-like juvenile hormone (JH) in...

Université de Fribourg

Similarities and differences in altitudinal versus latitudinal variation for morphological traits in Drosophila melanogaster

Klepsatel, Peter ; Gáliková, Martina ; Huber, Christian D. ; Flatt, Thomas

In: Evolution, 2014, vol. 68, no. 5, p. 1385–1398

Understanding how natural environments shape phenotypic variation is a major aim in evolutionary biology. Here, we have examined clinal, likely genetically based variation in morphology among 19 populations of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) from Africa and Europe, spanning a range from sea level to 3000 m altitude and including locations approximating the southern and northern range...

Université de Fribourg

Variation in thermal performance and reaction norms among populations of Drosophila melanogaster

Klepsatel, Peter ; Gáliková, Martina ; De Maio, Nicola ; Huber, Christian D. ; Schlötterer, Christian ; Flatt, Thomas

In: Evolution, 2013, vol. 67, no. 12, p. 3573–3587

The major goal of evolutionary thermal biology is to understand how variation in temperature shapes phenotypic evolution. Comparing thermal reaction norms among populations from different thermal environments allows us to gain insights into the evolutionary mechanisms underlying thermal adaptation. Here, we have examined thermal adaptation in six wild populations of the fruit fly (Drosophila...

Université de Fribourg

Reproductive and post-reproductive life history of wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster under laboratory conditions

Klepsatel, P. ; Gáliková, M. ; De Maio, N. ; Ricci, S. ; Schlötterer, C. ; Flatt, Thomas

In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 2013, vol. 26, no. 7, p. 1508–1520

The life history of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) is well understood, but fitness components are rarely measured by following single individuals over their lifetime, thereby limiting insights into lifetime reproductive success, reproductive senescence and post‐reproductive lifespan. Moreover, most studies have examined long‐ established laboratory strains rather than freshly...