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Université de Neuchâtel

Isolation of Ixodes ricinus salivary gland mRNA encoding factors induced during blood feeding

Leboulle, Gérard ; Rochez, Candice ; Louahed, Jamila ; Rutti, Bernard ; Brossard, Michel ; Bollen, Alex ; Godfroid, Edmond

In: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2002, vol. 66, no. 3, p. 225-233

In tick salivary glands, genes induced during blood feeding result in the expression of new proteins secreted into tick saliva. These proteins are potentially involved in modulation of vertebrate host immune and hemostatic responses. In this study, subtractive and full-length cDNA libraries were constructed by use of mRNA extracted from salivary glands of unfed and 5-day engorged Ixodes...

Université de Neuchâtel

PCR Detection of Granulocytic Ehrlichiae in Ixodes ricinus Ticks and Wild Small Mammals in Western Switzerland

Liz, Jorge S. ; Anderes, Laurence ; Sumner, John W. ; Massung, Robert F. ; Gern, Lise ; Rutti, Bernard ; Brossard, Michel

In: Journal of Clinical Biology, 2000, vol. 38, no. 3, p. 1002-1007

The presence of granulocytic ehrlichiae was demonstrated by PCR in Ixodes ricinus ticks and wild small mammals in Switzerland in two areas of endemicity for bovine ehrlichiosis. Six ticks (three females and three nymphs) (1.4%) of 417 I. ricinus ticks collected by flagging vegetation contained ehrlichial DNA. A total of 201 small mammals from five species, wood mouse (Apodemus...

Université de Neuchâtel

PCR Detection and Serological Evidence of Granulocytic Ehrlichial Infection in Roe Deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra)

Liz, Jorge S. ; Sumner, John W. ; Pfister, Kurt ; Brossard, Michel

In: Journal of Clinical Biology, 2002, vol. 40, no. 3, p. 892-897

The role of wild mammals, such as roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), in the epidemiology of granulocytic ehrlichiae in Switzerland was investigated. We tested blood samples for Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup 16S rRNA gene sequences by PCR and for immunoglobulin G antibodies against granulocytic ehrlichiae by indirect fluorescent-antibody...

Université de Neuchâtel

Cytokines (IL-4 and IFN-γ) and antibodies (IgE and IgG2a) produced in mice infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto via nymphs of Ixodes ricinus ticks or syringe inoculations

Christe, Martine ; Rutti, Bernard ; Brossard, Michel

In: Parasitology Research, 2000, vol. 86, no. 6, p. 491-496

Mice were tolerant to tick bites during three infestations with nymphs of Ixodes ricinus infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. To determine whether tick bites influence the immune response against B. burgdorferi, we examined the production of cytokines IL-4 and IFN-γ by lymph node cells of BALB/c mice and IL-4 deficient BALB/c mice after tick inoculation versus...

Université de Neuchâtel

Echantillonnage des eaux souterraines : Guide pratique = Grundwasserprobenahme. Praxishilfe

Thierrin, Joseph ; Steffen, Peter ; Cornaz, Samuel ; Vuataz, François-David ; Balderer, Werner ; Looser, Michel

In: Publications de l’Office fédéral de l’environnement, des forêts et du paysage (OFEFP), 2003, p. 1-83

Ce guide de l’échantillonnage des eaux souterraines réunit et présente les informations nécessaires et les précautions à prendre pour maîtriser chaque phase de l’échantillonnage (préparation de la campagne d’échantillonnage, prélèvement, conditionnement et stockage de l’échantillon) et en assurer la qualité. Il présente également les principales techniques de mesu-res et...

Université de Fribourg

Hydrogen-storage materials for mobile applications

Schlapbach, Louis ; Züttel, Andreas

In: Nature, 2002, vol. 414, p. 353-358

Mobility — the transport of people and goods — is a socioeconomic reality that will surely increase in the coming years. It should be safe, economic and reasonably clean. Little energy needs to be expended to overcome potential energy changes, but a great deal is lost through friction (for cars about 10 kWh per 100 km) and low-efficiency energy conversion. Vehicles can be run either by...

Université de Fribourg

Living with Lethal PIP3 Levels: Viability of Flies Lacking PTEN Restored by a PH Domain Mutation in Akt/PKB

Stocker, Hugo ; Andjelkovic, Mirjana ; Oldham, Sean ; Laffargue, Muriel ; Wymann, Matthias P. ; Hemmings, Brian A. ; Hafen, Ernst

In: Science, 2002, vol. 15, no. 5562, p. 2088 - 2091

The phosphoinositide phosphatase PTEN is mutated in many human cancers. Although the role of PTEN has been studied extensively, the relative contributions of its numerous potential downstream effectors to deregulated growth and tumorigenesis remain uncertain. We provide genetic evidence in Drosophila melanogaster for the paramount importance of the protein kinase Akt [also called protein...

Université de Fribourg

Weakening link to colorectal cancer ?

Barbier, Maryse ; Attoub, S. ; Calvez, Ronan ; Laffargue, Muriel ; Jarry, A. ; Mareel, M. ; Altruda, F. ; Gespach, C. ; Wu, D. ; Lu, B. ; Hirsch, E. ; Wymann, Matthias P.

In: Nature, 2001, vol. 413, p. 796

The catalytic α-subunit of the enzyme phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)Kα) relays signals from G- protein-coupled receptors at the cell membrane and mediates leukocyte responses to chemokines and chemoattractants1, 2, ³. Sasaki et al.⁴ report that mice that cannot produce PI(3)Kα have a high incidence of colorectal carcinomas, causing weight loss and...

Université de Fribourg

Dopamine responses comply with basic assumptions of formal learning theory

Waelti, Pascale ; Dickinson, Anthony ; Schultz, Wolfram

In: Nature, 2001, vol. 412, p. 43-48

According to contemporary learning theories, the discrepancy, or error, between the actual and predicted reward determines whether learning occurs when a stimulus is paired with a reward. The role of prediction errors is directly demonstrated by the observation that learning is blocked when the stimulus is paired with a fully predicted reward. By using this blocking procedure, we show that the...