Université de Fribourg

Which taxa are alien? Criteria, applications, and uncertainties

Essl, Franz ; Bacher, Sven ; Genovesi, Piero ; Hulme, Philip E. ; Jeschke, Jonathan M. ; Katsanevakis, Stelios ; Kowarik, Ingo ; Kühn, Ingolf ; Pyšek, Petr ; Rabitsch, Wolfgang ; Schindler, Stefan ; Kleunen, Mark van ; Vilà, Montserrat ; Wilson, John R. U. ; Richardson, David M.

In: BioScience, 2018, vol. 68, no. 7, p. 496–509

Human activities such as the transport of species to new regions and modifications of the environment are increasingly reshaping the distribution of biota. Accordingly, developing robust, repeatable, and consistent definitions of alien species that serve scientific and policy purposes has become of prime importance. We provide a set of classification criteria that are widely applicable across...

Université de Fribourg

Invasive alien plants benefit more from clonal integration in heterogeneous environments than natives

Wang, Yong-Jian ; Müller-Schärer, Heinz ; Kleunen, Mark van ; Cai, Ai-Ming ; Zhang, Ping ; Yan, Rong ; Dong, Bi-Cheng ; Yu, Fei-Hai

In: New Phytologist, 2017, vol. 216, no. 4, p. 1072–1078

What confers invasive alien plants a competitive advantage over native plants remains open to debate. Many of the world's worst invasive alien plants are clonal and able to share resources within clones (clonal integration), particularly in heterogeneous environments. Here, we tested the hypothesis that clonal integration benefits invasive clonal plants more than natives and thus confers...

Université de Fribourg

The response of the alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea to altered snowmelt timing: lessons from a multi-site transplant experiment

Sedlacek, Janosch ; Wheeler, Julia A. ; Cortés, Andrés J. ; Bossdorf, Oliver ; Hoch, Guenter ; Lexer, Christian ; Wipf, Sonja ; Karrenberg, Sophie ; Kleunen, Mark van ; Rixen, Christian

In: PLoS ONE, 2015, vol. 10, no. 4, p. e0122395

Climate change is altering spring snowmelt patterns in alpine and arctic ecosystems, and these changes may alter plant phenology, growth and reproduction. To predict how alpine plants respond to shifts in snowmelt timing, we need to understand trait plasticity, its effects on growth and reproduction, and the degree to which plants experience a home-site advantage. We tested how the common,...

Université de Fribourg

Small-scale patterns in snowmelt timing affect gene flow and the distribution of genetic diversity in the alpine dwarf shrub Salix herbacea

Cortés, Andres J. ; Waeber, Stephan ; Lexer, Christian ; Sedlacek, J. ; Wheeler, J. A. ; Kleunen, Mark van ; Bossdorf, O. ; Hoch, G. ; Rixen, C. ; Wipf, S . ; Karrenberg, S.

In: Heredity, 2014, p. -

Current threats to biodiversity, such as climate change, are thought to alter the within-species genetic diversity among microhabitats in highly heterogeneous alpine environments. Assessing the spatial organization and dynamics of genetic diversity within species can help to predict the responses of organisms to environmental change. In this study, we evaluated whether small-scale heterogeneity...

Université de Fribourg

Determinants of plant establishment success in a multispecies introduction experiment with native and alien species

Kempel, Anne ; Chrobock, Thomas ; Fischer, Markus ; Rohr, Rudolf Philippe ; Kleunen, Mark van

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2013, vol. 110, no. 31, p. 12727–12732

Determinants of plant establishment and invasion are a key issue in ecology and evolution. Although establishment success varies substantially among species, the importance of species traits and extrinsic factors as determinants of establishment in existing communities has remained difficult to prove in observational studies because they can be confounded and mask each other. Therefore, we...

Université de Fribourg

Increased phenotypic plasticity to climate may have boosted the invasion success of polyploid Centaurea stoebe

Hahn, Min A. ; Kleunen, Mark van ; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

In: PLoS ONE, 2012, vol. 7, no. 11, p. e50284

Phenotypic plasticity may allow organisms to cope with altered environmental conditions as e.g. after the introduction into a new range. In particular polyploid organisms, containing more than two sets of chromosomes, may show high levels of plasticity, which could in turn increase their environmental tolerance and invasiveness. Here, we studied the role of phenotypic plasticity in the invasion...

Université de Fribourg

Alien plant species with a wider global distribution are better able to capitalize on increased resource availability

Dawson, Wayne ; Rohr, Rudolf P. ; Kleunen, Mark van ; Fischer, Markus

In: New Phytologist, 2012, vol. 194, no. 3, p. 859–867

A high ability of alien plant species to capitalize on increases in resource availability has been suggested as an explanation for being globally successful. Here, we tested this hypothesis meta-analytically using existing data from experiments manipulating plant resources (light, water and nutrients).From these studies we extracted the response to resource increase of biomass, as an indicator of...