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Université de Fribourg

Life-history evolution and the genetics of fitness components in drosophila melanogaster

Flatt, Thomas

In: Genetics, 2020, vol. 214, no. 1, p. 3–48

Life-history traits or “fitness components”—such as age and size at maturity, fecundity and fertility, age-specific rates of survival, and life span—are the major phenotypic determinants of Darwinian fitness. Analyzing the evolution and genetics of these phenotypic targets of selection is central to our understanding of adaptation. Due to its simple and rapid life cycle, cosmopolitan...

Université de Fribourg

Evolutionary genomics can improve prediction of species’ responses to climate change

Waldvogel, Ann-Marie ; Feldmeyer, Barbara ; Rolshausen, Gregor ; Exposito-Alonso, Moises ; Rellstab, Christian ; Kofler, Robert ; Mock, Thomas ; Schmid, Karl ; Schmitt, Imke ; Bataillon, Thomas ; Savolainen, Outi ; Bergland, Alan ; Flatt, Thomas ; Guillaume, Frederic ; Pfenninger, Markus

In: Evolution Letters, 2020, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 4–18

Global climate change (GCC) increasingly threatens biodiversity through the loss of species, and the transformation of entire ecosystems. Many species are challenged by the pace of GCC because they might not be able to respond fast enough to changing biotic and abiotic conditions. Species can respond either by shifting their range, or by persisting in their local habitat. If populations...

Université de Fribourg

How flies turn food into progeny

Flatt, Thomas

In: eLife, 2019, vol. 8, p. e51289

Sex-optimal diets have different effects on gene expression in female and male flies.

Université de Fribourg

Distinct genomic signals of lifespan and life history evolution in response to postponed reproduction and larval diet in Drosophila

Hoedjes, Katja M. ; van den Heuvel, Joost ; Kapun, Martin ; Keller, Laurent ; Flatt, Thomas ; Zwaan, Bas J.

In: Evolution Letters, 2019, p. -

Reproduction and diet are two major factors controlling the physiology of aging and life history, but how they interact to affect the evolution of longevity is unknown. Moreover, although studies of large‐effect mutants suggest an important role of nutrient sensing pathways in regulating aging, the genetic basis of evolutionary changes in lifespan remains poorly understood. To address these...

Université de Fribourg

A clinal polymorphism in the insulin signaling transcription factor foxo contributes to life-history adaptation in Drosophila*

Durmaz, Esra ; Rajpurohit, Subhash ; Betancourt, Nicolas ; Fabian, Daniel K. ; Kapun, Martin ; Schmidt, Paul ; Flatt, Thomas

In: Evolution, 2019, vol. 73, no. 9, p. 1774–1792

A fundamental aim of adaptation genomics is to identify polymorphisms that underpin variation in fitness traits. In Drosophila melanogaster, latitudinal life‐history clines exist on multiple continents and make an excellent system for dissecting the genetics of adaptation. We have previously identified numerous clinal single‐nucleotide polymorphism in insulin/insulin‐like growth factor...

Université de Fribourg

Altering the temporal regulation of one transcription factor drives evolutionary trade-offs between head sensory organs

Ramaekers, Ariane ; Claeys, Annelies ; Kapun, Martin ; Mouchel-Vielh, Emmanuèle ; Potier, Delphine ; Weinberger, Simon ; Grillenzoni, Nicola ; Dardalhon-Cuménal, Delphine ; Yan, Jiekun ; Wolf, Reinhard ; Flatt, Thomas ; Buchner, Erich ; Hassan, Bassem A.

In: Developmental Cell, 2019, vol. 50, no. 6, p. 780-792.e7

Size trade-offs of visual versus olfactory organs is a pervasive feature of animal evolution. This could result from genetic or functional constraints. We demonstrate that head sensory organ size trade-offs in Drosophila are genetically encoded and arise through differential subdivision of the head primordium into visual versus non- visual fields. We discover that changes in the temporal...

Université de Fribourg

Adaptation to developmental diet influences the response to selection on age at reproduction in the fruit fly

May, Christina M. ; Heuvel, Joost van den ; Doroszuk, Agnieszka ; Hoedjes, Katja M. ; Flatt, Thomas ; Zwaan, Bas J.

In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 2019, vol. 32, no. 5, p. 425–437

Experimental evolution (EE) is a powerful tool for addressing how environmental factors influence life‐history evolution. While in nature different selection pressures experienced across the lifespan shape life histories, EE studies typically apply selection pressures one at a time. Here, we assess the consequences of adaptation to three different developmental diets in combination with...

Université de Fribourg

The adaptive significance of chromosomal inversion polymorphisms in Drosophila melanogaster

Kapun, Martin ; Flatt, Thomas

In: Molecular Ecology, 2019, vol. 28, no. 6, p. 1263–1282

Chromosomal inversions, structural mutations that reverse a segment of a chromosome, cause suppression of recombination in the heterozygous state. Several studies have shown that inversion polymorphisms can form clines or fluctuate predictably in frequency over seasonal time spans. These observations prompted the hypothesis that chromosomal rearrangements might be subject to spatially and/or ...

Université de Fribourg

The genomic and physiological basis of life history variation in a butterfly metapopulation

Klepsatel, Peter ; Flatt, Thomas

In: Molecular Ecology, 2011, vol. 20, no. 9, p. 1795-1798

Unravelling the mechanisms underlying variation in life history traits is of fundamental importance for our understanding of adaptation by natural selection. While progress has been made in mapping fitness-related phenotypes to genotypes, mainly in a handful of model organisms, functional genomic studies of life history adaptations are still in their infancy. In particular, despite a few notable...

Université de Fribourg

The Evolution of Aging

Fabian, Daniel ; Flatt, Thomas

In: Nature Education Knowledge, 2011, vol. 3, no. 3, p. 1-10