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Université de Fribourg

Hund excitations and the efficiency of Mott solar cells

Petocchi, Francesco ; Beck, Sophie ; Ederer, Claude ; Werner, Philipp

In: Physical Review B, 2019, vol. 100, no. 7, p. 075147

We study the dynamics of photoinduced charge carriers in semirealistic models of LaVO3 and YTiO3 polar heterostructures. It is shown that two types of impact ionization processes contribute to the carrier multiplication in these strongly correlated multiorbital systems: The first mechanism involves local spin state transitions, while the second mechanism involves the scattering of...

Université de Fribourg

Are integrins still practicable targets for anti-cancer therapy?

Alday-Parejo, Begoña ; Stupp, Roger ; Rüegg, Curzio

In: Cancers, 2019, vol. 11, no. 7, p. 978

Correlative clinical evidence and experimental observations indicate that integrin adhesion receptors, in particular those of the αV family, are relevant to cancer cell features, including proliferation, survival, migration, invasion, and metastasis. In addition, integrins promote events in the tumor microenvironment that are critical for tumor progression and metastasis, including tumor...

Université de Fribourg

Cooccurrence of NDM-1, ESBL, RmtC, AAC(6′)-Ib, and QnrB in Clonally Related Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates Together with Coexistence of CMY-4 and AAC(6′)-Ib in Enterobacter cloacae Isolates from Saudi Arabia

Al-Agamy, Mohamed H. ; El-Mahdy, Taghrid S. ; Radwan, Hesham H. ; Poirel, Laurent

In: BioMed Research International, 2019, p. -

The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for resistance to antimicrobials in a collection of enterobacterial isolates recovered from two hospitals in Saudi Arabia. A total of six strains isolated from different patients showing high resistance to carbapenems was recovered in 2015 from two different hospitals, with four being Klebsiella pneumoniae and two...

Université de Fribourg

ZHO-1, an intrinsic MBL from the environmental Gram-negative species Zhongshania aliphaticivorans

Kieffer, Nicolas ; Guzmán-Puche, Julia ; Poirel, Laurent ; Kang, Hyo Jung ; Jeon, Che Ok ; Nordmann, Patrice

In: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2019, vol. 74, no. 6, p. 1568–1571

Objectives: Our aim was to characterize the putative MBL of the environmental strain Zhongshania aliphaticivorans isolated from a marine environment.Methods: The putative MBL was identified in silico using the NCBI database. The β-lactamase gene was cloned into different Escherichia coli backgrounds. Kinetic parameters were determined using the purified enzyme.Results: The enzyme named ZHO-1...

Université de Fribourg

A selective culture medium for screening linezolid-resistant gram-positive bacteria

Nordmann, Patrice ; Rodríguez-Villodres, Angel ; Poirel, Laurent

In: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease, 2019, vol. 95, no. 1, p. 1–4

The SuperLinezolid medium was developed for screening resistance to linezolid (LZD) in Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp.). It was evaluated using LZD-susceptible (n = 20) and LZD-resistant (n = 17) Gram-positive isolates. The sensitivity was found to be 82% at 24 h (3 out of 17 isolates being missed), and reached 100% at 48 h. At 48 h, a single...

Université de Fribourg

mcr-9, An inducible gene encoding an acquired phosphoethanolamine transferase in Escherichia coli, and its origin

Kieffer, Nicolas ; Royer, b Guilhem ; Decousser, Jean-Winoc ; Bourrel, Anne-Sophie ; Palmieri, Mattia ; Ortiz De La Rosa, Jose-Manuel ; Jacquier, Hervé ; Denamur, Erick ; Nordmann, Patrice ; Poirel, Laurent

In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2019, vol. 63, no. 9, p. -

The plasmid-located mcr-9 gene, encoding a putative phosphoethanolamine transferase, was identified in a colistin-resistant human fecal Escherichia coli strain belonging to a very rare phylogroup, the D-ST69-O15:H6 clone. This MCR-9 protein shares 33% to 65% identity with the other plasmid-encoded MCR-type enzymes identified (MCR-1 to -8) that have been found as sources of acquired resistance...

Université de Fribourg

Efficacy of colistin alone and in various combinations for the treatment of experimental osteomyelitis due to carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

Crémieux, Anne-Claude ; Dinh, Aurélien ; Nordmann, Patrice ; Mouton, William ; Tattevin, Pierre ; Ghout, Idir ; Jayol, Aurelie ; Aimer, Omar ; Gatin, Laure ; Verdier, Marie-Clémence ; Saleh-Mghir, Azzam ; Laurent, Frédéric

In: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2019, vol. 74, no. 9, p. 2666–2675

Objectives: In a new experimental model of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae osteomyelitis we evaluated the efficacy of colistin alone and in various combinations and examined the emergence of colistin-resistant strains and cross- resistance to host defence peptides (HDPs).Methods: KPC-99YC is a clinical strain with intermediate susceptibility to meropenem (MIC = 4 mg/L) and...

Université de Fribourg

Review of emerging japanese encephalitis virus: new aspects and concepts about entry into the brain and inter-cellular spreading

Filgueira, Luis ; Lannes, Nils

In: Pathogens, 2019, vol. 8, no. 3, p. 111

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is an emerging flavivirus of the Asia-Pacific region. More than two billion people live in endemic or epidemic areas and are at risk of infection. Recently, the first autochthonous human case was recorded in Africa, and infected birds have been found in Europe. JEV may spread even further to other continents. The first section of this review covers...

Université de Fribourg

Inducible and reversible silencing of the Pvalb gene in mice: An in vitro and in vivo study

Filice, Federica ; Blum, Walter ; Lauber, Emanuel ; Schwaller, Beat

In: European Journal of Neuroscience, 2019, vol. 50, no. 4, p. 2694–2706

Inducible and reversible regulation of gene expression is a powerful approach for unraveling gene functions. Here, we describe the generation of a system to efficiently downregulate in a reversible and inducible manner the Pvalb gene coding for the calcium‐binding protein parvalbumin (PV) in mice. We made use of an IPTG‐inducible short hairpin RNA to activate Pvalb transcript knockdown...