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Université de Fribourg

Epilepsy-associated neurocognitive disorders (EAND) in an onchocerciasis-endemic rural community in Cameroon: A population-based case–control study

K.Njamnshi, Alfred ; Chokote, Eric-Samuel ; Ngarka, Leonard ; Nfor, Leonard N. ; Tabaha, Earnest N. ; Basseguin Atchou, Jonas G. ; Angwaforbe, Samuel A. ; Nkouonlack, Cyrille ; Mengnjo, Michel K. ; Njamnshi, Wepnyu Y. ; Demaa, Fidèle ; Tataha, Godwin Y. ; Zoung-KanyiBissek, Anne-Cecile ; Annoni, Jean-Marie ; Ruffieux, Nicolas

In: Epilepsy & Behavior, 2020, vol. 112, no. 2020-, p. 107437

Epilepsy affects at least 50 million individuals worldwide, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA). Cognitive impairment is common in people with epilepsy (PWE) yet, little is known on the burden of cognitive impairment in people with epilepsy in sSA. This study was thus designed to assess cognitive impairment in PWE or epilepsy- associated neurocognitive disorders (EAND) in a rural population...

Université de Fribourg

Enigmatic dinosaur precursors bridge the gap to the origin of Pterosauria

Ezcurra, Martín D. ; Nesbitt, Sterling J. ; Bronzati, Mario ; Vecchia, Fabio Marco Dalla ; Agnolin, Federico L. ; Benson, Roger B. J. ; Egli, Federico Brissón ; Cabreira, Sergio F. ; Evers, Serjoscha W. ; Gentil, Adriel R. ; Irmis, Randall B. ; Martinelli, Agustín G. ; Novas, Fernando E. ; Silva, Lúcio Roberto da ; Smith, Nathan D. ; Stocker, Michelle R. ; Turner, Alan H. ; Langer, Max C.

In: Nature, 2020, vol. 588, no. 2020-7838, p. 445–449

Pterosaurs were the first vertebrates to evolve powered flight1 and comprised one of the main evolutionary radiations in terrestrial ecosystems of the Mesozoic era (approximately 252–66 million years ago), but their origin has remained an unresolved enigma in palaeontology since the nineteenth century2,3,4. These flying reptiles have been hypothesized to be the close relatives of a wide...

Université de Fribourg

Mechanism of cystathionine-β-synthase inhibition by disulfiram: The role of bis(N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate)-copper(II)

Zuhra, Karim ; Panagaki, Theodora ; B.Randi, Elisa ; Augsburger, Fiona ; Blondel, Marc ; Friocourt, Gaelle ; Herault, Yann ; Szabo, Csaba

In: Biochemical Pharmacology, 2020, vol. 182, p. 114267

Background: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous mammalian gasotransmitter. Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3- mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) are the principal enzymes responsible for its biogenesis. A recent yeast screen suggested that disulfiram (a well-known inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase and a clinically used drug in the treatment of...

Université de Fribourg

The rise of angiosperms pushed conifers to decline during global cooling

Condamine, Fabien L. ; Silvestro, Daniele ; Koppelhus, Eva B. ; Antonelli, Alexandre

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2020, vol. 117, no. 46, p. 28867–28875

Competition among species and entire clades can impact species diversification and extinction, which can shape macroevolutionary patterns. The fossil record shows successive biotic turnovers such that a dominant group is replaced by another. One striking example involves the decline of gymnosperms and the rapid diversification and ecological dominance of angiosperms in the Cretaceous. It is...

Université de Fribourg

Misfit layer compounds: a platform for heavily doped 2D transition metal dichalcogenides

Leriche, Raphaël T. ; Palacio‐Morales, Alexandra ; Campetella, Marco ; Tresca, Cesare ; Sasaki, Shunsuke ; Brun, Christophe ; Debontridder, François ; David, Pascal ; Arfaoui, Imad ; Šofranko, Ondrej ; Samuely, Tomas ; Kremer, Geoffroy ; Monney, Claude ; Jaouen, Thomas ; Cario, Laurent ; Calandra, Matteo ; Cren, Tristan

In: Advanced Functional Materials, 2020, p. 2007706

Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) display a rich variety of instabilities such as spin and charge orders, Ising superconductivity, and topological properties. Their physical properties can be controlled by doping in electric double‐layer field‐effect transistors (FET). However, for the case of single layer NbSe2, FET doping is limited to ≈1 × 1014 cm−2, while a somewhat larger...

Université de Fribourg

Cortical projection from the premotor or primary motor cortex to the subthalamic nucleus in intact and parkinsonian adult macaque monkeys: a pilot tracing study

Borgognon, Simon ; Cottet, Jérôme ; Badoud, Simon ; Bloch, Jocelyne ; Brunet, Jean-François ; Rouiller, Eric M.

In: Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 2020, vol. 14, p. -

Besides the main cortical inputs to the basal ganglia, via the corticostriatal projection, there is another input via the corticosubthalamic projection (CSTP), terminating in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). The present study investigated and compared the CSTPs originating from the premotor cortex (PM) or the primary motor cortex (M1) in two groups of adult macaque monkeys. The first group...

Université de Fribourg

Are people with aphasia (pwa) involved in the creation of quality of life and aphasia impact-related questionnaires? A scoping review

Charalambous, Marina ; Kambanaros, Maria ; Annoni, Jean-Marie

In: Brain Sciences, 2020, vol. 10, no. 10, p. 688

Background: Quality of Life (QoL) questionnaires are used to describe the impact of aphasia on stroke survivors’ life. People with aphasia (PWA) are traditionally excluded from research, potentially leading to a mismatch between the factors chosen in the tools and the realistic needs of PWA. The purpose of this review was to determine the direct involvement of PWA in the creation of QoL and...

Université de Fribourg

Disproportionate extinction of South American mammals drove the asymmetry of the Great American Biotic Interchange

Carrillo, Juan D. ; Faurby, Søren ; Silvestro, Daniele ; Zizka, Alexander ; Jaramillo, Carlos ; Bacon, Christine D. ; Antonelli, and Alexandre

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2020, vol. 117, no. 42, p. 26281–26287

The biological interchange between North and South America associated with the formation of the Isthmus of Panama is key to defining current gradients of species diversity. A major gap in our understanding of the interchange is its asymmetry, where mammals of North American origin attained higher diversity in South America than vice versa. The prevailing view is that this asymmetry resulted...

Université de Fribourg

Cenozoic evolution of the steppe-desert biome in Central Asia

Barbolini, N. ; Woutersen, A. ; Dupont-Nivet, G. ; Silvestro, Daniele ; Tardif, D. ; Coster, P. M. C. ; Meijer, N. ; Chang, C. ; Zhang, H.-X. ; Licht, A. ; Rydin, C. ; Koutsodendris, A. ; Han, F. ; Rohrmann, A. ; Liu, X.-J. ; Zhang, Y. ; Donnadieu, Y. ; Fluteau, F. ; Ladant, J.-B. ; Le Hir, G. ; Hoorn, C.

In: Science Advances, 2020, vol. 6, no. 41, p. eabb8227

The origins and development of the arid and highly seasonal steppe-desert biome in Central Asia, the largest of its kind in the world, remain largely unconstrained by existing records. It is unclear how Cenozoic climatic, geological, and biological forces, acting at diverse spatial and temporal scales, shaped Central Asian ecosystems through time. Our synthesis shows that the Central Asian...

Université de Fribourg

An ATP-dependent partner switch links flagellar C-ring assembly with gene expression

Blagotinsek, Vitan ; Schwan, Meike ; Steinchen, Wieland ; Mrusek, Devid ; Hook, John C. ; Rossmann, Florian ; Freibert, Sven A. ; Kratzat, Hanna ; Murat, Guillaume ; Kressler, Dieter ; Beckmann, Roland ; Beeby, Morgan ; Thormann, Kai M. ; Bange, Gert

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2020, vol. 117, no. 34, p. 20826–20835

Bacterial flagella differ in their number and spatial arrangement. In many species, the MinD-type ATPase FlhG (also YlxH/FleN) is central to the numerical control of bacterial flagella, and its deletion in polarly flagellated bacteria typically leads to hyperflagellation. The molecular mechanism underlying this numerical control, however, remains enigmatic. Using the model species Shewanella...