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Université de Fribourg

Foraminiferal-based biotic indices to assess the ecological quality status of the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia): Present limitations and future perspectives

Kateb, Akram El ; Stalder, Claudio ; Martínez-Colón, Michael ; Mateu-Vicens, Guillem ; Francescangeli, Fabio ; Coletti, Giovanni ; Stainbank, Stephanie ; Spezzaferri, Silvia

In: Ecological Indicators, 2020, vol. 111, p. 105962

Biotic indices are tools to assess the ecological status of marine systems, and can be based on different metrics (such as ecological groups, specific diversity). The present study applies five biotic indices based on living (stained) benthic foraminiferal assemblages to assess ecological conditions in a wide area of the Mediterranean Sea in the heavily polluted Gulf of Gabes and along the...

Université de Fribourg

Potential future lakes from continued glacier shrinkage in the Aosta Valley Region (Western Alps, Italy)

Viani, Cristina ; Machguth, Horst ; Huggel, Christian ; Godio, Alberto ; Franco, Diego ; Perotti, Luigi ; Giardino, Marco

In: Geomorphology, 2020, vol. 355, p. 107068

Aosta Valley (Western Alps, Italy) is the region with the largest glacierized area of Italy. Like other high mountain regions, it has shown a significant glacier retreat starting from the end of the ‘Little Ice Age’ that is expected to continue in the future. As a direct consequence of glacier shrinkage, glacier-bed overdeepenings become exposed, offering suitable geomorphological ...

Université de Fribourg

Assessing the potential of soil moisture measurements for regional landslide early warning

Wicki, Adrian ; Lehmann, Peter ; Hauck, Christian ; Seneviratne, Sonia I. ; Waldner, Peter ; Stähli, Manfred

In: Landslides, 2020, p. -

In mountainous terrain, rainfall-induced landslides pose a serious risk to people and infrastructure. Regional landslide early warning systems (LEWS) have proven to be a cost-efficient tool to inform the public about the imminent landslide danger. While most operational LEWS are based on rainfall exceedance thresholds only, recent studies have demonstrated an improvement of the forecast...

Université de Fribourg

Impact of bottom water currents on benthic foraminiferal assemblages in a cold-water coral environment: The Moira Mounds (NE Atlantic)

Fentimen, Robin ; Lim, Aaron ; Rüggeberg, Andres ; Wheeler, Andrew J. ; Rooij, David Van ; Foubert, Anneleen

In: Marine Micropaleontology, 2020, vol. 154, p. 101799

Strong bottom currents play a key role in cold-water coral environments by shaping their morphology and providing the necessary food for the corals to thrive. This study investigates the differences between living and dead benthic foraminiferal assemblages in such environments, more precisely on the Moira Mounds (NE Atlantic). A specific focus is to understand the role of currents and their...

Université de Fribourg

Monitoring rock glacier kinematics with satellite synthetic aperture radar

Strozzi, Tazio ; Caduff, Rafael ; Jones, Nina ; Barboux, Chloé ; Delaloye, Reynald ; Bodin, Xavier ; Kääb, Andreas ; Mätzler, Eva ; Schrott, Lothar

In: Remote Sensing, 2020, vol. 12, no. 3, p. 559

Active rock glaciers represent the best visual expression of mountain permafrost that can be mapped and monitored directly using remotely sensed data. Active rock glaciers are bodies that consist of a perennially frozen ice/rock mixture and express a distinct flow-like morphology indicating downslope permafrost creep movement. Annual rates of motion have ranged from a few millimeters to...

Université de Fribourg

Total energy expenditure assessed by doubly labeled water technique and estimates of physical activity in Mauritian children: analysis by gender and ethnicity

Ramuth, Harris ; Schutz, Yves ; Calonne, Julie ; Joonas, Noorjehan ; Dulloo, Abdul G.

In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2020, vol. 74, no. 3, p. 445–453

In the tropical island of Mauritius, the rise in obesity has accelerated in the past decades, and could be contributed by low physical activity and increased sedentary behavior. The study objectives were to generate the first dataset of total energy expenditure (TEE), to estimate physical activity in Mauritian children, and to explore differences due to gender and ethnicity.Subjects/methods:...

Université de Fribourg

A novel 3D intestine barrier model to study the immune response upon exposure to microplastics

Lehner, Roman ; Wohlleben, Wendel ; Septiadi, Dedy ; Landsiedel, Robert ; Petri‑Fink, Alke ; Rothen‑Rutishauser, Barbara

In: Archives of Toxicology, 2020, p. -

The plausibility of human exposure to microplastics has increased within the last years. Microplastics have been found in different food types including seafood, salt, sugar and beverages. So far, human health effects of microplastics after ingestion are unknown. Herein, we designed a novel, three- dimensional in vitro intestinal model consisting of the human intestinal epithelial cell lines...

Université de Fribourg

In-season leaf damage by a biocontrol agent explains reproductive output of an invasive plant species

Augustinus, Benno A. ; Lommen, Suzanne T.E. ; Fogliatto, Silvia ; Vidotto, Francesco ; Smith, Tessa ; Horvath, David ; Bonini, Maira ; Gentili, Rodolfo F. ; Citterio, Sandra ; Müller-Schärer, Heinz ; Schaffner, Urs

In: NeoBiota, 2020, vol. 55, p. 117–146

One of the biggest challenges in classical biological control of invasive weeds is predicting the likelihood of success. Ambrosia artemisiifolia, a North American plant species that has become invasive in Europe, causes economic losses due to health problems resulting from its huge amount of highly allergenic pollen and as a weed to agricultural crops resulting from high seed densities. Here...

Université de Fribourg

Biological weed control to relieve millions from Ambrosia allergies in Europe

Schaffner, Urs ; Steinbach, Sandro ; Sun, Yan ; Skjøth, Carsten A. ; Weger, Letty A. de ; Lommen, Suzanne T. ; Augustinus, Benno A. ; Bonini, Maira ; Karrer, Gerhard ; Šikoparija, Branko ; Thibaudon, Michel ; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

In: Nature Communications, 2020, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 1745

Invasive alien species (IAS) can substantially affect ecosystem services and human well-being. However, quantitative assessments of their impact on human health are rare and the benefits of implementing IAS management likely to be underestimated. Here we report the effects of the allergenic plant Ambrosia artemisiifolia on public health in Europe and the potential impact of the accidentally...

Université de Fribourg

Causal mediation analysis with double machine learning

Farbmacher, Helmut ; Huber, Martin ; Langen, Henrika ; Spindler, Martin

(Working Papers SES ; 515)

This paper combines causal mediation analysis with double machine learning to control for observed confounders in a data-driven way under a selection-on- observables assumption in a high-dimensional setting. We consider the average indirect effect of a binary treatment operating through an intermediate variable (or mediator) on the causal path between the treatment and the outcome, as well as...