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Università della Svizzera italiana

The MRE11 complex : a versatile toolkit for the repair of broken DNA

Reginato, Giordano ; Cejka, Petr

In: DNA repair, 2020, vol. 91–92, no. July–August, p. 13 p

When DNA breaks, the ends need to be stabilized and processed to facilitate subsequent repair, which can occur by either direct but error-prone end-joining with another broken DNA molecule or a more accurate homology-directed repair by the recombination machinery. At the same time, the presence of broken DNA triggers a signaling cascade that regulates the repair events and cellular progression...

Università della Svizzera italiana

Explaining the microtubule energy balance : contributions due to dipole moments, charges, van der Waals and solvation energy

Ayoub, Ahmed Taha ; Staelens, Michael ; Prunotto, Alessio ; Deriu, Marco A. ; Danani, Andrea ; Klobukowski, Mariusz ; Tuszynski, Jack Adam

In: International journal of molecular sciences, 2017, vol. 18, no. 10, p. 2042

Microtubules are the main components of mitotic spindles, and are the pillars of the cellular cytoskeleton. They perform most of their cellular functions by virtue of their unique dynamic instability processes which alternate between polymerization and depolymerization phases. This in turn is driven by a precise balance between attraction and repulsion forces between the constituents of...

Università della Svizzera italiana

Conformational dynamics and stability of U-shaped and S-shaped amyloid β assemblies

Grasso, Gianvito ; Rebella, Martina ; Muscat, Stefano ; Morbiducci, Umberto ; Tuszynski, Jack ; Danani, Andrea ; Deriu, Marco A.

In: International journal of molecular sciences, 2018, vol. 19, no. 2, p. 571

Alzheimer’s disease is the most fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the aggregation and deposition of Amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers in the brain of patients. Two principal variants of Aβ exist in humans: Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42. The former is the most abundant in the plaques, while the latter is the most toxic species and forms fibrils more rapidly. Interestingly, fibrils of...

Università della Svizzera italiana

Protein environment : a crucial triggering factor in Josephin domain aggregation : the role of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol

Visentin, Cristina ; Navarro, Susanna ; Grasso, Gianvito ; Regonesi, Maria Elena ; Deriu, Marco Agostino ; Tortora, Paolo ; Ventura, Salvador

In: International journal of molecular sciences, 2018, vol. 19, no. 8, p. 2151

The protein ataxin-3 contains a polyglutamine stretch that triggers amyloid aggregation when it is expanded beyond a critical threshold. This results in the onset of the spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. The protein consists of the globular N-terminal Josephin domain and a disordered C-terminal tail where the polyglutamine stretch is located. Expanded ataxin-3 aggregates via a two-stage...

Università della Svizzera italiana

A novel interaction between the TLR7 and a colchicine derivative revealed through a computational and experimental study

Gentile, Francesco ; Deriu, Marco A. ; Barakat, Khaled ; Danani, Andrea ; Tuszynski, Jack

In: Pharmaceuticals, 2018, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 22

The Toll-Like Receptor 7 (TLR7) is an endosomal membrane receptor involved in the innate immune system response. Its best-known small molecule activators are imidazoquinoline derivatives such as imiquimod (R-837) and resiquimod (R-848). Recently, an interaction between R-837 and the colchicine binding site of tubulin was reported. To investigate the possibility of an interaction between...

Università della Svizzera italiana

Effect of lactose pseudopolymorphic transition on the aerosolization performance of drug/carrier mixtures

Della Bella, Andrea ; Müller, Michele ; Danani, Andrea ; Soldati, Luciano ; Bettini, Ruggero

In: Pharmaceutics, 2019, vol. 11, no. 11, p. 576

Physico-chemical properties of lactose are key factors in adhesive mixtures used as dry powder inhaler (DPI). Despite the abundant literature on this topic, the effect of the polymorphism and pseudo-polymorphism of lactose has been seldom investigated and discussed although often lactose used in DPI is subjected to unit operations, which may alter its solid-state properties. Here, we studied...

Università della Svizzera italiana

Endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomal quality control of four nonsense mutants of iduronate 2-sulfatase linked to Hunter’s syndrome

Marazza, Alessandro ; Galli, Carmela ; Fasana, Elisa ; Sgrignani, Jacopo ; Burda, Patricie ; Enrico M. A. Fassi ; Matthias Baumgartner ; Andrea Cavalli ; Maurizio Molinari

In: DNA and cell biology

Hunter’s syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type II) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS) gene. Motivated by the case of a child affected by this syndrome, we compared the intracellular fate of wild type IDS (IDSWT) and of four nonsense mutations of IDS (IDSL482X, IDSY452X, IDSR443X and IDSW337X) generating progressively shorter ...

Università della Svizzera italiana

DNA (hydroxy)methylation in T helper lymphocytes

Monticelli, Silvia

In: Trends in biochemical sciences, 2019, vol. 44, no. 7, p. 589-598

Upon recognition of an antigen, the differentiation of antigen-inexperienced naïve T lymphocytes into subsets able to effectively coordinate host defense is controlled by a network of transcription factors and regulatory molecules. In the cell nucleus, these factors act in the context of epigenetic modifications that influence DNA accessibility and ultimately gene expression. This review...

Università della Svizzera italiana

Proteasomal and lysosomal clearance of faulty secretory proteins : ER-associated degradation (ERAD) and ER-to-lysosome-associated degradation (ERLAD) pathways

Fregno, Ilaria ; Molinari, Maurizio

In: Critical reviews in biochemistry and molecular biology, 2019, vol. 54, no. 2, p. 153-163

About 40% of the eukaryotic cell’s proteins are inserted co- or post-translationally in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they attain the native structure under the assistance of resident molecular chaperones and folding enzymes. Subsequently, these proteins are secreted from cells or are transported to their sites of function at the plasma membrane or in organelles of the secretory and ...

Università della Svizzera italiana

Structural basis for broad HIV-1 neutralization by the MPER-specific human broadly neutralizing antibody LN01

Pinto, Dora ; Fenwick, Craig ; Caillat, Christophe ; Silacci, Chiara ; Guseva, Serafima ; Dehez, François ; Chipot, Christophe ; Barbieri, Sonia ; Minola, Andrea ; Jarrossay, David ; Tomaras, Georgia D. ; Shen, Xiaoying ; Riva, Agostino ; Tarkowski, Maciej ; Schwartz, Olivier ; Bruel, Timothée ; Dufloo, Jérémy ; Seaman, Michael S. ; Montefiori, David C. ; Lanzavecchia, Antonio ; Corti, Davide ; Pantaleo, Giuseppe ; Weissenhorn, Winfried

In: Cell host & microbe, 2019, vol. 26, no. 5, p. p. 623-637.e8

Potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are the hallmark of HIV-1 protection by vaccination. The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 gp41 fusion protein is targeted by the most broadly reactive HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies. Here, we examine the structural and molecular mechansims of neutralization by anti-MPER bnAb, LN01, which was isolated from lymph-node-derived...