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Université de Neuchâtel

Isotope fractionation due to diffusion and sorption of chlorinated hydrocarbons and its implications for identifying reactive processes in aquifer - aquitard systems

Wanner, Philipp ; Hunkeler, Daniel (Dir.)

Thèse de doctorat : Université de Neuchâtel, 2016.

Chlorinated hydrocarbons are anthropogenic contaminants, which are known to be possibly carcinogenic to humans. Although the peak production of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the 1970ties was followed by a dramatic decrease in the subsequent decades, chlorinated hydrocarbons are still frequently detected in aquifer systems demonstrating their long-term persistence. When chlorinated hydrocarbons are...

Université de Neuchâtel

Action selectors without Floer-Homology

Haug, Carsten ; Schlenk, Felix (Dir.)

Thèse de doctorat : Université de Neuchâtel, 2018.

Hamiltonian systems on symplectic manifolds tend to have many periodic orbits. The “actions” of these orbits form an invariant for the Hamiltonian system. The set of actions can be very large, however. To get useful invariants, one selects for each Hamiltonian function just one action value by some minimax procedure: A so-called action selector associates with every compactly supported...

Université de Neuchâtel

On reducing latency in geo-distributed systems through state partitioning and caching

Halalai, Raluca ; Felber, Pascal (Dir.)

Thèse de doctorat : Université de Neuchâtel, 2018.

Modern distributed systems are increasingly large, spanning many datacenters from different geographic regions. The end goal of such systems is to provide services to their users with high availability and good performance. This thesis proposes approaches to reduce the access latency perceived by end users. First, we focus on systems that rely on the state machine replication approach in...

Université de Neuchâtel

Adjustments of levels of cooperation in cleaner wrasse "Labroides dimidiatus" : the effects of an audience and satiation

Pinto, Ana Isabel ; Bshary, Redouan (Dir.)

Thèse de doctorat : Université de Neuchâtel, 2015.

Cooperation, the mutual helping between unrelated individuals, is an evolutionary puzzle. This is because helping is often an investment that must yield future benefits in order to be under positive selection. Generally, natural selection favours individuals that perform self-serving behaviour, and hence cheating is a major conceptual issue. However, examples of cooperation are abundant in...

Université de Neuchâtel

Estimation of a counterfactual wage distribution using survey data

Anastasiade, Mihaela-Cãtãlina ; Tillé, Yves (Dir.)

Thèse de doctorat : Université de Neuchâtel, 2018.

Wage discrimination based on gender is a debated topic nowadays. While wage discrimination is prohibited by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, studies show that women are systematically paid less than men. Wage discrimination is defined as the fact that two groups sharing the same characteristics and performing the same tasks are paid differently. However, this definition is not easy to...

Université de Neuchâtel

Social behaviour, stress and parasites : comparing free-ranging wolves in Yellowstone (USA), Abruzzo (Italy) and Mercantour (France) national parks

Molnar, Barbara ; Betschart, Bruno (Dir.)

Thèse de doctorat : Université de Neuchâtel, 2012.

Formerly occupying most of the northern hemisphere, wolf (Canis lupus) populations have disappeared from a broad range of their initial distribution range, consecutive to human persecution. Following protection of the species, the carnivore recently expended its distribution range, through dispersal events or helped by reintroduction programs. Besides anthropic threats, infection by...

Université de Neuchâtel

Respiratory physiology and anthropophilic behavioural traits of the main malaria vector "Anopheles gambiae" Giles (Diptera: Culicidae)

Frei, Jérôme ; Guerin, Patrick (Dir.)

Thèse de doctorat : Université de Neuchâtel, 2018.

Anopheles gambiae Giles (An. gambiae) is the main vector of malaria. To fulfil metabolic demand An. gambiae is particularly dependent on blood feeding which is an important driving force of its strong vectorial capacity. It is therefore important to better understand how its metabolism scales with body size and, as an ectotherm, evaluate the thermal sensitivity of its...

Université de Neuchâtel

Semiconductor disk laser-based frequency combs

Jornod, Nayara ; Südmeyer, Thomas (Dir.)

Thèse de doctorat : Université de Neuchâtel, 2018.

This thesis studies the first self-referenced frequency combs based on modelocked semiconductor disk lasers (SDLs). The generation of stabilized frequency combs based on ultrafast lasers has been a significant breakthrough for many applications in various fields of physics, spectroscopy and metrology. Optical frequency combs can serve as a frequency ruler that provides a direct and...

Université de Neuchâtel

La gestion durable des sols agricoles : sécuriser les démarches ou légitimer les controverses ? L’exemple des politiques agroenvironnementales autour de l’érosion hydrique des sols arables en Suisse

Derungs, Nicolas ; Hertz, Ellen (Dir.) ; Mitchell, Edward (Codir.)

Thèse de doctorat : Université de Neuchâtel, 2018 ; TH. 2722.

This interdisciplinary dissertation (combining natural, political and social sciences) focuses on the sustainable management of agricultural soils. More specifically, it tackles Swiss environmental and agricultural policies for qualitative soil protection and the accompanying measures to limit water erosion of arable lands. Aiming to launch sustained debate and reflection about the dominant...

Université de Neuchâtel

Multimodal information retrieval

Geiger, Melanie ; Savoy, Jacques (Dir.) ; Braschler, Martin (Codir.)

Thèse de doctorat : Université de Neuchâtel, 2018.

Knowledge-intensive business processes, one of the essential drivers of our economy today, often rely on multimodal information retrieval systems that have to deal with increasingly complex document collections and queries. The complexity mainly evolves due to a large and diverse range of textual and non-textual modalities such as geographical coordinates, ratings and timestamps used in the...