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Université de Neuchâtel

Statistical metrics for the characterization of karst network geometry and topology

Collon, P ; Bernasconi, D ; Vuilleumier, C ; Renard, Philippe

In: Geomorphology, 2017, vol. 283, p. 122-142

Statistical metrics can be used to analyse the morphology of natural or simulated karst systems; they allow describing, comparing, and quantifying their geometry and topology. In this paper, we present and discuss a set of such metrics. We study their properties and their usefulness based on a set of more than 30 karstic networks mapped by speleologists. The data set includes some of the largest...

Université de Fribourg

Change detection of bare-ice albedo in the Swiss Alps

Naegeli, Kathrin ; Huss, Matthias ; Hoelzle, Martin

In: The Cryosphere, 2019, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 397–412

Albedo feedback is an important driver of glacier melt over bare-ice surfaces. Light- absorbing impurities strongly enhance glacier melt rates but their abundance, composition and variations in space and time are subject to considerable uncertainties and ongoing scientific debates. In this study, we assess the temporal evolution of shortwave broadband albedo derived from 15 end-of-summer...

Université de Neuchâtel

On the use of multiple-point statistics to improve groundwater flow modeling in karst aquifers : A case study from the Hydrogeological Experimental Site of Poitiers, France

Le Coz, M ; Bodin, J ; Renard, Philippe

In: Journal of Hydrology, 2017, vol. 545, p. 109-119

Limestone aquifers often exhibit complex groundwater flow behaviors resulting from depositional heterogeneities and post-lithification fracturing and karstification. In this study, multiple-point statistics (MPS) was applied to reproduce karst features and to improve groundwater flow modeling. For this purpose, MPS realizations were used in a numerical flow model to simulate the responses to...

Université de Fribourg

dSir2 and Dmp53 interact to mediate aspects of CR‐dependent life span extension in D. melanogaster

Bauer, Johannes H. ; Morris, Siti Nur Sarah ; Chang, Chenguyi ; Flatt, Thomas ; Wood, Jason G. ; Helfand, Stephen L.

In: Aging, 2009, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 38-48

Calorie Restriction (CR) is a well established method of extending life span in a variety of organisms. In the fruit fly D. melanogaster, CR is mediated at least in part by activation of dSir2. In mammalian systems, one of the critical targets of Sir2 is the tumor suppressor p53. This deacetylation of p53 by Sir2 leads to inhibition of p53's transcriptional activity. We have recently shown that...

Université de Fribourg

Reduced skeletal muscle protein turnover and thyroid hormone metabolism in adaptive thermogenesis that facilitates body fat recovery during weight regain

Calonne, Julie ; Isacco, Laurie ; Miles-Chan, Jennifer ; Arsenijevic, Denis ; Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Guillet, Christelle ; Boirie, Yves ; Dulloo, Abdul G.

In: Frontiers in Endocrinology, 2019, vol. 10, p. -

Objective: The recovery of body composition after weight loss is characterized by an accelerated rate of fat recovery (preferential catch-up fat) resulting partly from an adaptive suppression of thermogenesis. Although the skeletal muscle has been implicated as an effector site for such thrifty (energy conservation) metabolism driving catch-up fat, the underlying mechanisms remain to be...

Université de Fribourg

Spatially varying selection shapes life history clines among populations of Drosophila melanogaster from sub-Saharan Africa

Fabian, D. K. ; Lack, J. B. ; Mathur, V. ; Schlötterer, C. ; Schmidt, P. S. ; Pool, J. E. ; Flatt, Thomas

In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 2015, vol. 28, no. 4, p. 826–840

Clines in life history traits, presumably driven by spatially varying selection, are widespread. Major latitudinal clines have been observed, for example, in Drosophila melanogaster, an ancestrally tropical insect from Africa that has colonized temperate habitats on multiple continents. Yet, how geographic factors other than latitude, such as altitude or longitude, affect life history in this...

Université de Neuchâtel

De la coutume au code : résistances à la codification du droit civil à Neuchâtel sous l'Ancien Régime

Wyssbrod, Adrien ; Christin, Olivier (Dir.) ; Dunand, Jean-Philippe (Codir.) ; Chaix, Gérald (Codir.) ; Tappy, Denis (Codir.)

Thèse de doctorat : Université de Neuchâtel, 2018.

Le droit civil dans la principauté de Neuchâtel reste coutumier durant tout l'Ancien Régime. Malgré une volonté en apparence affirmée de codifier, les princes de Neuchâtel successifs ne parviennent pas à faire rédiger cette coutume. Leurs rêves de codifications s'inscrivent parfaitement dans les idées des Lumières et les souverains sont soutenus par les philosophes. Pourquoi, dans une...

Université de Fribourg

Evolution in group-structured populations can resolve the tragedy of the commons

Killingback, Timothy ; Bieri, Jonas ; Flatt, Thomas

In: Proceeding of the Royal Society, 2006, no. 273, p. 1477–1481

Public goods are the key features of all human societies and are also important in many animal societies. Collaborative hunting and collective defence are but two examples of public goods that have played a crucial role in the development of human societies and still play an important role in many animal societies. Public goods allow societies composed largely of cooperators to outperform...

Università della Svizzera italiana

How viruses hijack the ERAD tuning machinery

Noack, Julia ; Bernasconi, Riccardo ; Molinari, Maurizio

In: Journal of virology, 2014, vol. 88, no. 18, p. 10272-10275

An essential step during the intracellular life cycle of many positive-strand RNA viruses is the rearrangement of host cell membranes to generate membrane-bound replication platforms. For example, Nidovirales and Flaviviridae subvert the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for their replication. However, the absence of conventional ER and secretory pathway markers in virus-induced...

Università della Svizzera italiana

Division of labor among oxidoreductases : TMX1 preferentially acts on transmembrane polypeptides

Brambilla Pisoni, Giorgia ; Ruddock, Lloyd W. ; Bulleid, Neil ; Molinari, Maurizio

In: Molecular biology of the cell, 2015, vol. 26, no. 19, p. 3373-3556

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of maturation for secretory and membrane proteins in eukaryotic cells. The lumen of the mammalian ER contains >20 members of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) superfamily, which ensure formation of the correct set of intramolecular and intermolecular disulfide bonds as crucial, rate-limiting reactions of the protein folding process. Components of...