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Université de Fribourg

Increased salt-sensitivity in endothelial nitric oxide synthase–knockout mice

Leonard, Allison M. ; Chafe, Linda L. ; Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Vliet, Bruce N. Van

In: American Journal of Hypertension, 2006, vol. 19, no. 12, p. 1264-1269

Background Although impaired nitric oxide production contributes importantly to salt-sensitivity, the role of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has received little attention. In the present study we compared the effects of a high-salt diet on the blood pressure response of eNOS knockout (eNOS−/−) and control (eNOS+/+) mice. Methods Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart...

Université de Fribourg

Weight cycling during growth and beyond as a risk factor for later cardiovascular diseases: the 'repeated overshoot' theory

Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Viecelli, A. K. ; Prévot, Anne ; Dulloo, Abdul G.

In: International Journal of Obesity, 2006, vol. 30, no. S4, p. S58–S66

In people trying to lose weight, there are often repeated cycles of weight loss and regain. Weight cycling is, however, not limited to obese adults but affects people of normal weight, particularly young women, who are unhappy with their appearance. Furthermore, the onset of a pattern of weight cycling is shifting towards younger ages, owing to the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity...

Université de Fribourg

The thrifty 'catch-up fat' phenotype: its impact on insulin sensitivity during growth trajectories to obesity and metabolic syndrome

Dulloo, Abdul G. ; Jacquet, Jean ; Seydoux, Josiane ; Montani, Jean-Pierre

In: International Journal of Obesity, 2006, vol. 30, no. S4, p. S23–S35

The analyses of large epidemiological databases have suggested that infants and children who show catch-up growth, or adiposity rebound at a younger age, are predisposed to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases later in life. The pathophysiological mechanisms by which these growth trajectories confer increased risks for these diseases are obscure, but there is...

Université de Fribourg

A role for skeletal muscle stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 in control of thermogenesis

Mainieri, Davide ; Summermatter, Serge ; Seydoux, Josiane ; Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Rusconi, Sandro ; Russell, Aaron P. ; Boss, Olivier ; Buchala, Antony J. ; Dulloo, Abdul G.

In: The FASEB Journal, 2006, vol. 20, no. 10, p. 1751-1753

An enhanced metabolic efficiency for accelerating the recovery of fat mass (or catch-up fat) is a characteristic feature of body weight regulation after weight loss or growth retardation and is the outcome of an "adipose-specific" suppression of thermogenesis, i.e., a feedback control system in which signals from the depleted adipose tissue fat stores exert a suppressive effect on thermogenesis....

Université de Fribourg

Water-induced thermogenesis reconsidered: the effects of osmolality and water temperature on energy expenditure after drinking

Brown, Clive M. ; Dulloo, Abdul G. ; Montani, Jean-Pierre

In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2006, vol. 91, no. 9, p. 3598-3602

Context: A recent study reported that drinking 500 ml of water causes a 30% increase in metabolic rate. If verified, this previously unrecognized thermogenic property of water would have important implications for weight-loss programs. However, the concept of a thermogenic effect of water is controversial because other studies have found that water drinking does not increase energy...

Université de Fribourg

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone directly stimulates thermogenesis in skeletal muscle possibly through substrate cycling between de novo lipogenesis and lipid oxidation

Solinas, Giovanni ; Summermatter, Serge ; Mainieri, Davide ; Gubler, Marcel ; Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Seydoux, Josiane ; Smith, S. R. ; Dulloo, Abdul G.

In: Endocrinology, 2006, vol. 147(1), p. 31-38

The mechanisms by which CRH and related peptides (i.e. the CRH/urocortin system) exert their control over thermogenesis and weight regulation have until now focused only upon their effects on brain centers controlling sympathetic outflow. Using a method that involves repeated oxygen uptake determinations in intact mouse skeletal muscle, we report here that CRH can act directly on skeletal...

Université de Fribourg

Mature adipocytes and perivascular adipose tissue stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation: effects of aging and obesity

Barandier, Christine ; Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Yang, Zhihong

In: American Journal of Physiology - Heart & Circulatory Physiology, 2005, vol. 289, p. H1807-H1813

Adipocytes and perivascular adipose tissue are emerging as regulators of vascular function. The effects of adipocytes and perivascular adipose tissue on human smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation were investigated. Conditioned medium was prepared from cultured premature and differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and from periaortic adipose tissue from young (3 mo) and old (24 mo) Wistar-Kyoto (WKY)...

Université de Fribourg

The direct effect of leptin on skeletal muscle thermogenesis is mediated by substrate cycling between de novo lipogenesis and lipid oxidation

Solinas, Giovanni ; Summermatter, Serge ; Mainieri, Davide ; Gubler, Marcel ; Pirola, Luciano ; Wymann, Matthias P. ; Rusconi, Sandro ; Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Seydoux, Josiane

In: FEBS Letters, 2004, vol. 577 (3), p. 539-544

We report here studies that integrate data of respiration rate from mouse skeletal muscle in response to leptin and pharmacological interference with intermediary metabolism, together with assays for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Our results suggest that the direct effect of leptin in stimulating thermogenesis in skeletal muscle is mediated by...

Université de Fribourg

Substrate cycling between de novo lipogenesis and lipid oxidation: a thermogenic mechanism against skeletal muscle lipotoxicity and glucolipotoxicity

Dulloo, Abdul G. ; Gubler, Marcel ; Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Seydoux, Josiane ; Solinas, Giovanni

In: International Journal of Obesity, 2004, vol. 28 (Suppl. 4), p. S29-S37

Life is a combustion, but how the major fuel substrates that sustain human life compete and interact with each other for combustion has been at the epicenter of research into the pathogenesis of insulin resistance ever since Randle proposed a 'glucose-fatty acid cycle' in 1963. Since then, several features of a mutual interaction that is characterized by both reciprocality and dependency between...

Université de Fribourg

Ectopic fat storage in heart, blood vessels and kidneys in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases

Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Carroll, Joan F. ; Dwyer, Terry M. ; Antic, Vladan ; Yang, Zhihong ; Dulloo, Abdul G.

In: International Journal of Obesity, 2004, vol. 28, p. S58-65

In humans and most animal models, the development of obesity leads not only to increased fat depots in classical adipose tissue locations but also to significant lipid deposits within and around other tissues and organs, a phenomenon known as ectopic fat storage. The purpose of this review is to explore the possible locations of ectopic fat in key target-organs of cardiovascular control (heart,...