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Université de Fribourg

Two pairs of drosophila central brain neurons mediate larval navigational strategies based on temporal light information processing

Humberg, Tim-Henning ; Sprecher, Simon G.

In: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 2018, vol. 12, p. -

Some animals are attracted by sun light, others are highly repulsed by it. Especially for slowly moving animals, such as Drosophila larvae, direct sunlight may be perceived as noxious stimulus as it increases the risk of desiccation, DNA-damaging by UV-light and exposure to predators. For several reasons, model organisms like Drosophila larvae are well-suited for investigating how light cues...

Université de Fribourg

Multiple neurons encode CrebB dependent appetitive long-term memory in the mushroom body circuit

Widmer, Yves F ; Fritsch, Cornelia ; Jungo, Magali M ; Almeida, Silvia ; Egger, Boris ; Sprecher, Simon G

In: eLife, 2018, vol. 7, p. e39196

Lasting changes in gene expression are critical for the formation of long-term memories (LTMs), depending on the conserved CrebB transcriptional activator. While requirement of distinct neurons in defined circuits for different learning and memory phases have been studied in detail, only little is known regarding the gene regulatory changes that occur within these neurons. We here use the...

Université de Fribourg

Secreted venom allergen-like proteins of helminths: Conserved modulators of host responses in animals and plants

Wilbers, Ruud H. P. ; Schneiter, Roger ; Holterman, Martijn H. M. ; Drurey, Claire ; Smant, Geert ; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A. ; Maizels, Rick M. ; Lozano-Torres, Jose L.

In: PLOS Pathogens, 2018, vol. 14, no. 10, p. e1007300

Despite causing considerable damage to host tissue at the onset of parasitism, invasive helminths establish remarkably persistent infections in both animals and plants. Secretions released by these obligate parasites during host invasion are thought to be crucial for their persistence in infection. Helminth secretions are complex mixtures of molecules, most of which have unknown molecular...

Université de Fribourg

The ongoing naturalisation of Eucalyptus spp. in the Mediterranean Basin: new threats to native species and habitats

Badalamenti, Emilio ; Cusimano, D. ; Mantia, Tommaso La ; Pasta, Salvatore ; Romano, S. ; Troia, Angelo ; Ilardi, V.

In: Australian Forestry, 2018, vol. 81, no. 4, p. 239–249

The genus Eucalyptus has been widely introduced into many regions of the world outside its native range and has become invasive in some Mediterranean biomes (e.g. in southern Africa and California). In the Mediterranean Basin and Europe, eucalypts were introduced at the end of the 18th century. However, natural regeneration events in these regions are recent in time and limited in terms of...

Université de Fribourg

Conventional and emerging roles of the energy sensor Snf1/AMPK in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Coccetti, Paola ; Nicastro, Raffaele ; Tripodi, Farida

In: Microbial Cell, 2018, vol. 5, no. 11, p. 482–494

All proliferating cells need to match metabolism, growth and cell cycle progression with nutrient availability to guarantee cell viability in spite of a changing environment. In yeast, a signaling pathway centered on the effector kinase Snf1 is required to adapt to nutrient limitation and to utilize alternative carbon sources, such as sucrose and ethanol. Snf1 shares evolutionary conserved...

Université de Fribourg

Sympatric diploid and tetraploid cytotypes of Centaurea stoebe s.l. do not differ in arbuscular mycorrhizal communities and mycorrhizal growth response

Sudová, Radka ; Kohout, Petr ; Kolaříková, Zuzana ; Rydlová, Jana ; Voříšková, Jana ; Suda, Jan ; Španiel, Stanislav ; Müller-Schärer, Heinz ; Mráz, Patrik

In: American Journal of Botany, 2018, vol. 105, no. 12, p. 1995–2007

Genome duplication is associated with multiple changes at different levels, including interactions with pollinators and herbivores. Yet little is known whether polyploidy may also shape belowground interactions.Methods: To elucidate potential ploidy‐specific interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), we compared mycorrhizal colonization and assembly of AMF communities in roots of...

Université de Fribourg

Estimating economic benefits of biological control of Ambrosia artemisiifolia by Ophraella communa in southeastern France

Mouttet, Raphaelle ; Augustinus, Benno ; Bonini, Maira ; Chauvel, Bruno ; Desneux, Nicolas ; Gachet, Emmanuel ; Le Bourgeois, Thomas ; Müller-Schärer, Heinz ; Thibaudon, Michel ; Schaffner, Urs

In: Basic and Applied Ecology, 2018, vol. 33, p. 14–24

The North American common ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, which produces highly allergenic pollen, is invasive in different parts of the world, including Europe. In 2013, common ragweed in northern Italy was found attacked by another accidentally introduced species, the North American leaf beetle Ophraella communa, which is used for biological control of common ragweed in China. Since the...

Université de Fribourg

Cross-fertilizing weed science and plant invasion science to improve efficient management: A European challenge

Müller-Schärer, Heinz ; Sun, Yan ; Chauvel, Bruno ; Karrer, Gerhard ; Kazinczi, Gabriella ; Kudsk, P. ; Lansink Oud, A. G. J. M. ; Schaffner, Urs ; Skjoth, C. A. ; Smith, M. ; Vurro, M. ; de Weger, L. A. ; Lommen, Suzanne T. E.

In: Basic and Applied Ecology, 2018, vol. 33, p. 1–13

Both weed science and plant invasion science deal with noxious plants. Yet, they have historically developed as two distinct research areas in Europe, with different target species, approaches and management aims, as well as with diverging institutions and researchers involved. We argue that the strengths of these two disciplines can be highly complementary in implementing management...

Université de Fribourg

Microbial life in the grapevine: what can we expect from the leaf microbiome?

Vionnet, Léo ; Vrieze, Mout De ; Dutartre, Agnès ; Gfeller, Aurélie ; Lüthi, Angelika ; L’Haridon, Floriane ; Weisskopf, Laure

In: OENO One, 2018, vol. 52, no. 3, p. 219–224

Recent studies have shown that plants harbor complex bacterial communities, the so- called “microbiome”. We are only beginning to unravel the origin of these bacterial plant inhabitants, their community structure and their roles, which, in analogy to the gut microbiome, are likely to be of essential nature. The aim of this work was to analyze the abundance and diversity of the cultivable...