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Université de Fribourg

Body composition-derived BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity in Indians and Creoles of Mauritius: comparison with Caucasians

Hunma, S ; Ramuth, H ; Miles-Chan, Jennifer L. ; Schutz, Yves ; Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Joonas, N ; Dulloo, Abdul G.

In: International Journal of Obesity, 2016, vol. 40, no. 12, p. 1906–1914

Global estimates of overweight and obesity prevalence are based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) body mass index (BMI) cut-off values of 25 and 30 kg m⁻², respectively. To validate these BMI cut-offs for adiposity in the island population of Mauritius, we assessed the relationship between BMI and measured body fat mass in this population according to gender and...

Université de Fribourg

Energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in response to side-alternating whole body vibration across three commonly-used vibration frequencies

Fares, Elie-Jacques ; Charrière, Nathalie ; Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Schutz, Yves ; Dulloo, Abdul G. ; Miles-Chan, Jennifer L.

In: PLOS ONE, 2016, vol. 11, no. 3, p. e0151552

There is increasing recognition about the importance of enhancing energy expenditure (EE) for weight control through increases in low-intensity physical activities comparable with daily life (1.5–4 METS). Whole-body vibration (WBV) increases EE modestly and could present both a useful adjuvant for obesity management and tool for metabolic phenotyping. However, it is unclear whether a...

Université de Fribourg

Fasting substrate oxidation at rest assessed by indirect calorimetry: is prior dietary macronutrient level and composition a confounder?

Miles-Chan, Jennifer L. ; Dulloo, Abdul G. ; Schutz, Yves

In: International Journal of Obesity, 2015, p. -

Indirect calorimetry, the measurement of O₂ consumption and CO₂ production, constitutes an invaluable tool as the most common method for analyzing whole-body energy expenditure, and also provides an index of the nature of macronutrient substrate oxidation—namely, carbohydrate (CHO) versus fat oxidation. The latter constitutes a key etiological factor in obesity as this condition can only...

Université de Fribourg

How dieting makes the lean fatter: from a perspective of body composition autoregulation through adipostats and proteinstats awaiting discovery

Dulloo, Abdul G. ; Jacquet, Jean ; Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Schutz, Yves

In: Obesity Reviews, 2015, vol. 16, p. 25–35

Whether dieting makes people fatter has been a subject of considerable controversy over the past 30 years. More recent analysis of several prospective studies suggest, however, that it is dieting to lose weight in people who are in the healthy normal range of body weight, rather than in those who are overweight or obese, that most strongly and consistently predict future weight gain. This paper...

Université de Fribourg

Dieting and weight cycling as risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases: who is really at risk?

Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Schutz, Yves ; Dulloo, Abdul G.

In: Obesity Reviews, 2015, vol. 16, p. 7–18

Despite the poor prognosis of dieting in obesity management, which often results in repeated attempts at weight loss and hence weight cycling, the prevalence of dieting has increased continuously in the past decades in parallel to the steadily increasing prevalence of obesity. However, dieting and weight cycling are not limited to those who are obese or overweight as substantial proportions of...

Université de Fribourg

Impact des ultrasons diffus combinés au travail musculaire sur plaque vibrante sur la modification de la composition corporelle de femmes modérément obèses

Hafiz, S. ; Durrer, D. ; Schutz, Yves

In: Obésité, 2014, p. 1–7

Objectives: To study, in obese subjects, the effect of diffuse ultrasound application in the abdominal area combined to muscular work on a vibrating platform. This dual method aims at accelerating the mobilisation of adipose tissue.Methods: 40 sedentary obese women, 18 to 55 years old, with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and ≤40 kg/m2 were randomized into 3 groups. 1) A control group (CONTR, n=13), 2) a...

Université de Fribourg

Sitting comfortably versus lying down: Is there really a difference in energy expenditure?

Miles-Chan, Jennifer Lynn ; Sarafian, Delphine ; Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Schutz, Yves ; Dulloo, Abdul G.

In: Clinical Nutrition, 2014, vol. 33, no. 1, p. 175–178

Background and aims: Energy expenditure (EE) during sitting is widely assumed to be higher than that while lying down, but supporting evidence is equivocal. Despite this, resting EE in the sitting position is often used as a proxy for basal metabolic rate. Here we investigate whether EE differs in the comfortable seated position compared to supine (lying) position.Methods: EE and respiratory...

Université de Fribourg

Energy gap in the aetiology of body weight gain and obesity: a challenging concept with a complex evaluation and pitfalls

Schutz, Yves ; Byrne, N. M. ; Dulloo, Abdul G. ; Hills, A. P.

In: Obesity Facts, 2014, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 15–25

The concept of energy gap(s) is useful for understanding the consequence of a small daily, weekly, or monthly positive energy balance and the inconspicuous shift in weight gain ultimately leading to overweight and obesity. Energy gap is a dynamic concept: an initial positive energy gap incurred via an increase in energy intake (or a decrease in physical activity) is not constant, may fade out...

Université de Fribourg

Heterogeneity in the energy cost of posture maintenance during standing relative to sitting: phenotyping according to magnitude and time-Course

Miles-Chan, Jennifer L. ; Sarafian, Delphine ; Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Schutz, Yves ; Dulloo, Abdul G.

In: PLoS ONE, 2013, vol. 8, no. 5, p. e65827

Background: Reducing sitting-time may decrease risk of disease and increase life-span. In the search for approaches to reduce sitting-time, research often compares sitting to standing and ambulation, but the energetic cost of standing alone versus sitting is equivocal, with large variation in reported mean values (0% to > 20% increase in energy expenditure (EE) during standing).Objective: To...

Université de Fribourg

Adaptive thermogenesis in human body weight regulation: more of a concept than a measurable entity?

Dulloo, Abdul G. ; Jacquet, Jean ; Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Schutz, Yves

In: Obesity Reviews, 2012, vol. 13, no. S2, p. 105–121

According to Lavoisier, ‘Life is combustion’. But to what extent humans adapt to changes in food intake through adaptive thermogenesis – by turning down the rate of heat production during energy deficit (so as to conserve energy) or turning it up during overnutrition (so as to dissipate excess calories) – has been one of the most controversial issues in nutritional sciences over the past...