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Université de Fribourg

Recent advances in biochemical and molecular diagnostics for the rapid detection of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a focus on ß-lactam resistance

Decousser, Jean-Winoc ; Poirel, Laurent ; Nordmann, Patrice

In: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, 2017, vol. 17, no. 4, p. 327–350

The rapid detection of resistance is a challenge for clinical microbiologists who wish to prevent deleterious individual and collective consequences such as (i) delaying efficient antibiotic therapy, which worsens the survival rate of the most severely ill patients, or (ii) delaying the isolation of the carriers of multidrug-resistant bacteria and promoting outbreaks; this last consequence is...

Université de Fribourg

The Political Economy of Universal Pensions in Bolivia

Müller, Katharina

In: sozialpolitik.ch, 2016, vol. 1, no. 1, p. Article: 1.2

While non-contributory pensions are spreading around the globe, Bolivia is still the only Latin American country with a universal old-age pension scheme. Originally designed twenty years ago and contested more than once, the benefit survived a political regime change from neo-liberalism to new developmentalism and features an interesting political economy. With the commodities boom coming to an...

Université de Fribourg

Health and Old Age in Latin America and Africa : Introdution to the Issue

Künzler, Daniel

In: sozialpolitik.ch, 2016, vol. 1, no. 1, p. Article: 1.1

The remarkable dynamism of government welfare provision in Africa and in Latin America and the Caribbean is embedded in a broader context. As a legacy of the colonial past, social protection for old age and health care was generally the privilege of the rather small group of formal sector workers. French colonialism emphasized an active role of the state in social protection and had a quite...

Université de Fribourg

Peer effects on perseverance

Buechel, Berno ; Mechtenberg, Lydia ; Petersen, Julia

(Working Papers SES ; 488)

Successful performance – be it in school, at the job, or in sports activities – requires perseverance, i.e., persistent work on a demanding task. We investigate in a controlled laboratory experiment how an individual’s social environment affects perseverance. We find evidence for two kinds of peer effects: being observed by a peer can serve as a commitment device, while observing a peer can...

Université de Fribourg

Combining experimental evidence with machine learning to assess anti-corruption educational campaigns among Russian university students

Denisova-Schmidt, Elena ; Huber, Martin ; Leontyeva, Elvira ; Solovyeva, Anna

(Working Papers SES ; 487)

This paper examines how anti-corruption educational campaigns affect the attitudes of Russian university students towards corruption and academic integrity. About 2,000 survey participants were randomly assigned to one of four different information materials (brochures or videos) about the negative consequences of corruption or to a control group. Using machine learning to detect effect...

Université de Fribourg

The innate immune signaling system as a regulator of disease resistance and induced systemic resistance activity against Verticillium dahliae

Gkizi, Danai ; Lehmann, Silke ; L’Haridon, Floriane ; Serrano, Mario ; Paplomatas, Epaminondas J. ; Métraux, Jean-Pierre ; Tjamos, Sotirios E.

In: Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 2016, vol. 29, no. 4, p. 313–323

In the last decades, the plant innate immune responses against pathogens have been extensively studied, while biocontrol interactions between soilborne fungal pathogens and their hosts have received much less attention. Treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana with the nonpathogenic bacterium Paenibacillus alvei K165 was shown previously to protect against Verticillium dahliae by triggering induced...

Université de Fribourg

Eye gaze behavior at turn transition: how aphasic patients process speakers’ turns during video observation

Preisig, Basil C. ; Eggenberger, Noëmi ; Zito, Giuseppe ; Vanbellingen, Tim ; Schumacher, Rahel ; Hopfner, Simone ; Gutbrod, Klemens ; Nyffeler, Thomas ; Cazzoli, Dario ; Annoni, Jean-Marie ; Bohlhalter, Stephan ; Müri, René M.

In: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2016, vol. 28, no. 10, p. 1613–1624

The human turn-taking system regulates the smooth and precise exchange of speaking turns during face-to-face interaction. Recent studies investigated the processing of ongoing turns during conversation by measuring the eye movements of noninvolved observers. The findings suggest that humans shift their gaze in anticipation to the next speaker before the start of the next turn. Moreover, there...

Université de Fribourg

Link prediction in evolving networks based on popularity of nodes

Wang, Tong ; He, Xing-Sheng ; Zhou, Ming-Yang ; Fu, Zhong-Qian

In: Scientific Reports, 2017, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 7147

Link prediction aims to uncover the underlying relationship behind networks, which could be utilized to predict missing edges or identify the spurious edges. The key issue of link prediction is to estimate the likelihood of potential links in networks. Most classical static-structure based methods ignore the temporal aspects of networks, limited by the time-varying features, such approaches...

Université de Fribourg

Quantum Monte Carlo impurity solvers for multi-orbital problems and frequency-dependent interactions

Shinaoka, Hiroshi ; Assaad, F. ; Blümer, N. ; Werner, Philipp

In: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, 2017, vol. 226, no. 11, p. 2499–2523

The solution of an auxiliary quantum impurity system is the computationally expensive step in dynamical mean field theory simulations of lattice models and materials. In this review, we discuss Monte Carlo based impurity solvers, which are suitable for a wide range of applications. In particular, we present an efficient implementation of the hybridization expansion approach, which enables the...

Université de Fribourg

Nonequilibrium steady states and transient dynamics of conventional superconductors under phonon driving

Murakami, Yuta ; Tsuji, Naoto ; Eckstein, Martin ; Werner, Philipp

In: Physical Review B, 2017, vol. 96, no. 4, p. 045125

We perform a systematic analysis of the influence of phonon driving on the superconducting Holstein model coupled to heat baths by studying both the transient dynamics and the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) in the weak and strong electron-phonon coupling regimes. Our study is based on the nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory, and for the NESS we present a Floquet formulation ...