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Université de Fribourg

The difficult-to-control spread of carbapenemase producers in Enterobacteriaceae worldwide

Nordmann, Patrice ; Poirel, Laurent

In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 2014, p. -

Spread of carbapenemase producers in Enterobacteriaceae is now identified worldwide. Three main carbapenemases are reported which belong to three classes of ß-lactamases that are KPC, NDM and OXA-48. The main reservoirs of KPC are Klebsiella pneumoniae in the USA, Israel, Greece and Italy, of NDM are K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in the Indian subcontinent, and of OXA-48 are K. pneumoniae...

Université de Fribourg

Characteristics of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 isolates that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases: global distribution of the H30-Rx sublineage

Peirano, Gisele ; Bij, Akke K. van der ; Freeman, Joshua L. ; Poirel, Laurent ; Nordmann, Patrice ; Costello, Michael ; Tchesnokova, Veronika L. ; Pitout, Johann D. D.

In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2014, vol. 58, no. 7, p. 3762–3767

We designed a study to describe the characteristics of sequence type 131 (ST131) lineages, including the H30-Rx sublineage, among a global collection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from 9 countries collected from 2000 to 2011. A total of 240 nonrepeat isolates from Canada, the United States, Brazil, the Netherlands, France, the United Arab...

Université de Fribourg

P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase is involved in arginase-II-mediated eNOS-Uncoupling in Obesity

Yu, Yi ; Rajapakse, Angana G. ; Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Yang, Zhihong ; Ming, Xiu-Fen

In: Cardiovascular Diabetology, 2014, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 113

Background Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-uncoupling links obesity-associated insulin resistance and type-II diabetes to the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Studies have indicated that increased arginase is involved in eNOS-uncoupling through competing with the substrate L-arginine. Given that arginase-II (Arg-II) exerts some of its biological functions through crosstalk...

Université de Fribourg

Discharge properties of neurons recorded in the parvalbumin-positive (PV1) nucleus of the rat lateral hypothalamus

Lintas, Allessandra

In: Neuroscience Letters, 2014, vol. 571, p. 29–33

This study reports for the first time the extracellular activity recorded, in anesthetized rats, from cells located in an identified cluster of parvalbumin (PV)-positive neurons of the lateral hypothalamus forming the PV1-nucleus. Random-like firing characterized the majority (21/30) of the cells, termed regular cells, with a median firing rate of 1.7 spikes/s, Fano factor equal to 1, and evenly...

Université de Fribourg

Partially dissociable roles of OFC and ACC in stimulus-guided and action-guided decision making

Khani, Abbas

In: Journal of Neurophysiology, 2014, vol. 111, no. 9, p. 1717–1720

Recently, the functional specialization of prefrontal areas of the brain, and, specifically, the functional dissociation of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), during decision making have become a particular focus of research. A number of neuropsychological and lesion studies have shown that the OFC and ACC have dissociable functions in various dimensions of...

Université de Fribourg

Functional body composition and related aspects in research on obesity and cachexia: report on the 12th Stock Conference held on 6 and 7 September 2013 in Hamburg, Germany

Müller, M. J. ; Baracos, V. ; Bosy-Westphal, A. ; Dulloo, Abdul G. ; Eckel, J. ; Fearon, K. C. H. ; Hall, K. D. ; Pietrobelli, A. ; Sørensen, T. I. A. ; Speakman, J. ; Trayhurn, P. ; Visser, M. ; Heymsfield, S. B.

In: Obesity Reviews, 2014, vol. 15, no. 8, p. 640–656

The 12th Stock Conference addressed body composition and related functions in two extreme situations, obesity and cancer cachexia. The concept of ‘functional body composition’ integrates body components into regulatory systems relating the mass of organs and tissues to corresponding in vivo functions and metabolic processes. This concept adds to an understanding of organ/tissue mass and...

Université de Fribourg

Cardiovascular responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks using a randomised cross-over study design: does glucose attenuate the blood pressure-elevating effect of fructose?

Grasser, Erik K. ; Dulloo, Abdul ; Montani, Jean-Pierre

In: British Journal of Nutrition, 2014, vol. 112, no. 02, p. 183–192

Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. The objective of the present study was to elucidate acute haemodynamic and microcirculatory responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks made from sucrose, glucose or fructose at concentrations similar to those often found in commercial soft drinks. In a randomised cross-over study design, twelve young...

Université de Fribourg

BDNF signaling in the VTA links the drug-dependent state to drug withdrawal aversions

Vargas-Perez, Hector ; Bahi, Amine ; Bufalino, Mary Rose ; Ting-A-Kee, Ryan ; Maal-Bared, Geith ; Lam, Jenny ; Fahmy, Ahmed ; Clarke, Laura ; Blanchard, Jennifer K. ; Larsen, Brett R. ; Steffensen, Scott ; Dreyer, Jean-Luc ; Kooy, Derek van der

In: The Journal of Neuroscience, 2014, vol. 34, no. 23, p. 7899–7909

Drug administration to avoid unpleasant drug withdrawal symptoms has been hypothesized to be a crucial factor that leads to compulsive drug-taking behavior. However, the neural relationship between the aversive motivational state produced by drug withdrawal and the development of the drug-dependent state still remains elusive. It has been observed that chronic exposure to drugs of abuse increases...