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Université de Neuchâtel

Real-time visual attention on a massively parallel SIMD architecture

Ouerhani, Nabil ; Hügli, Heinz

In: Real-Time Imaging, 2003, vol. 9(3), p. 189-196

Visual attention is the ability to rapidly detect the visually salient parts of a given scene on which higher level vision tasks, such as object recognition, can focus. Found in biological vision, this mechanism represents a fundamental tool for computer vision. This paper reports the first real-time implementation of the complete visual attention mechanism on a compact and low-power...

Université de Fribourg

Divergence and convergence of thalamocortical projections to premotor and supplementary motor cortex: a multiple tracing study in the macaque monkey

Morel, Anne ; Liu, Jian ; Wannier, Thierry ; Jeanmonod, Daniel ; Rouiller, Eric M.

In: European Journal of Neuroscience, 2005, vol. 21(4), p. 1007

The premotor cortex of macaque monkeys is currently subdivided into at least six different subareas on the basis of structural, hodological and physiological criteria. To determine the degree of divergence/convergence of thalamocortical projections to mesial [supplementary motor area (SMA)-proper and pre-SMA] and lateral (PMd-c, PMd-r, PMv-c and PMv-r) premotor (PM) subareas, quantitative...

Université de Fribourg

A unilateral section of the corticospinal tract at cervical level in Primate does not lead to measurable cell loss in Motor cortex

Wannier, Thierry. ; Schmidlin, Eric ; Bloch, Jocelyne ; Rouiller, Eric M.

In: Journal of Neurotrauma, 2005, vol. 22(6), p. 703

The effects of a unilateral interruption of the dorsolateral funiculus at cervical level on the survival of neurons in the motor cortex were investigated in macaque monkeys. The lesion was made on the left side at the transition region between the 7th and 8th cervical segments, above the motoneurons controlling hand muscles. As a result, the homolateral hand became paretic,...

Université de Fribourg

Nitric oxide synthase gene transfer inhibits biological features of bypass graft disease in the human saphenous vein

Tanner, Felix C. ; Largiadèr, Thomas ; Greutert, Helen ; Yang, Zhihong ; Lüscher, Thomas F.

In: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 2004, vol. 127(1), p. 20

Background Bypass graft disease is related to proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells and to platelet activation with thrombus formation. Nitric oxide inhibits these biological responses; it has never been demonstrated, however, whether this occurs in intact human vascular tissue after endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene transfer. Methods We examined whether endothelial...

Université de Fribourg

The direct effect of leptin on skeletal muscle thermogenesis is mediated by substrate cycling between de novo lipogenesis and lipid oxidation

Solinas, Giovanni ; Summermatter, Serge ; Mainieri, Davide ; Gubler, Marcel ; Pirola, Luciano ; Wymann, Matthias P. ; Rusconi, Sandro ; Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Seydoux, Josiane

In: FEBS Letters, 2004, vol. 577 (3), p. 539-544

We report here studies that integrate data of respiration rate from mouse skeletal muscle in response to leptin and pharmacological interference with intermediary metabolism, together with assays for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Our results suggest that the direct effect of leptin in stimulating thermogenesis in skeletal muscle is mediated by...

Université de Fribourg

Substrate cycling between de novo lipogenesis and lipid oxidation: a thermogenic mechanism against skeletal muscle lipotoxicity and glucolipotoxicity

Dulloo, Abdul G. ; Gubler, Marcel ; Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Seydoux, Josiane ; Solinas, Giovanni

In: International Journal of Obesity, 2004, vol. 28 (Suppl. 4), p. S29-S37

Life is a combustion, but how the major fuel substrates that sustain human life compete and interact with each other for combustion has been at the epicenter of research into the pathogenesis of insulin resistance ever since Randle proposed a 'glucose-fatty acid cycle' in 1963. Since then, several features of a mutual interaction that is characterized by both reciprocality and dependency between...

Université de Fribourg

Ectopic fat storage in heart, blood vessels and kidneys in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases

Montani, Jean-Pierre ; Carroll, Joan F. ; Dwyer, Terry M. ; Antic, Vladan ; Yang, Zhihong ; Dulloo, Abdul G.

In: International Journal of Obesity, 2004, vol. 28, p. S58-65

In humans and most animal models, the development of obesity leads not only to increased fat depots in classical adipose tissue locations but also to significant lipid deposits within and around other tissues and organs, a phenomenon known as ectopic fat storage. The purpose of this review is to explore the possible locations of ectopic fat in key target-organs of cardiovascular control (heart,...

Université de Fribourg

About the morphological relationships of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the sole plate area of the frog

Voigt, Tilman ; Dauber, Wolfgang

In: Tissue and Cell, 2004, vol. 36 (4), p. 249-252

In the present investigation the sole plate area of motor end plates of the frog is ultrastructurally examined with different postfixation methods. We concentrated in this case on the proof of the smooth and rough sarcoplasmic reticulum of the sole plate. The relations of the smooth and rough sarcoplasmic reticulum to subsynaptic folds and the local T-system and its connections to diads and...

Université de Fribourg

Progressive plastic changes in the hand representation of the primary motor cortex parallel incomplete recovery from a unilateral section of the corticospinal tract at cervical level in monkeys

Schmidlin, Eric ; Wannier, Thierry ; Bloch, Jocelyne ; Rouiller, Eric M.

In: Brain Research, 2004, vol. 1017, p. 172-182

After a sub-total hemisection of the cervical cord at level C7/C8 in monkeys, a paralysis of the homolateral hand is rapidly followed by an incomplete recovery of manual dexterity, reaching a plateau after about 40–50 days, whose extent appears related to the size of the lesion. During a few days after the lesion, the hand representation in the contralateral motor cortex disappeared, replaced...

Université de Fribourg

Matching the neural adaptation in the rat ventral cochlear nucleus produced by artificial (electric) and acoustic stimulation of the cochlea

Loquet, Gérard ; Pelizzone, Marco ; Valentini, Gregory ; Rouiller, Eric M.

In: Audiology and Neuro-Otology, 2004, vol. 9, p. 144-159

To investigate neural adaptive properties, near-field evoked potentials were recorded from a chronically implanted electrode in the ventral cochlear nucleus in awake Long-Evans rats exposed to acoustic stimuli or receiving intracochlear electric stimulation. Stimuli were 250-ms trains of repetitive acoustic clicks (10, 30 and 50 dB SPL) or biphasic electric pulses (30, 50 and 70 µA) with...