Faculté de l'environnement naturel, architectural et construit ENAC, Section des sciences et ingénierie de l'environnement, Institut des sciences et technologies de l'environnement ISTE (Laboratoire de pollution atmosphérique et du sol LPAS)

Study of the kinetics of condensation and evaporation of water vapor over atmospherically relevant pure and doped ice films : a multiple diagnostic approach

Delval, Christophe ; Rossi, Michel (Dir.)

Thèse sciences Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne EPFL : 2005 ; no 3159.

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    This thesis presents the different steps in the development of a multiple diagnostic experimental setup and the results concerning the kinetics of condensation and evaporation of water over pure ice, as well as ice films doped with a known amount of atmospheric trace gases. The goal of this project is to obtain reliable data concerning the evaporative flux, Jev [molec cm-2 s-1], and the concomitant rate of condensation, kcond [s-1], of H2O molecules in the presence of an ice film. A further aim of this work is the detailed investigation of the impact on the aforementioned kinetic processes of the deposition of atmospherically relevant trace gases such as hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen bromide and nitric acid (HNO3) under well defined conditions including those that are representative of the atmosphere. The new experimental apparatus consisting of a stainless steel reactor may be used under three different regimes, namely static, stirred flow and dynamic condition which correspond to equilibrium, low rate of pumping and molecular flow, respectively. The separation of the kinetics into individual processes is principally afforded by the application of these 3 regimes. First, using a combination of the first two regimes, we have measured Jev and γ of H2O in the case of pure as well as HCl- or HBr-doped ice in the range 190-240 K. The resulting Arrhenius expressions for pure ice are: in the presence of an average mole fraction of HCl, ΧHCl, in the range 3.2·10-5 to 6.4·10-3 we have found: and for ΧHBr at a HBr mole fraction smaller than 6.4·10-3 was found, where R=1.987 cal mol-1 K-1. Owing to the rate separation, γ applies to an individual rate process and should be called an accommodation rather than an uptake coefficient. Of utmost importance is the fact that during most of the ice film evaporation the vapor pressure remained that of pure ice even in the presence of small amounts of HCl or HBr on the order of a fraction to several formal monolayers. This is consistent with the enthalpies of sublimation that may be derived following the relation ΔHsubl0 = Econd - Eev. It leads to different thermochemical parameters A (pre-exponential factor) and E values (energy of activation) for the three cases that are identical within experimental uncertainty. In addition, FTIR spectroscopy of the ice films involved in these experiments in transmission have revealed that different species such as amorphous HCl·H2O mixtures or the crystalline HCl·6H2O hexahydrate are formed depending on the doping protocol. These two species significantly affect the temporal change of Jev each in a different manner. For the sake of precision and accuracy of the kinetic results, a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was subsequently added to the experimental apparatus and used as a substrate for ice film growth. The development of a QCM-based device for the investigation of the kinetic processes of ice films at atmospherically relevant temperatures was a challenge we have successfully surmounted whereas previously published attempt had given barely convincing results. The Arrhenius representation of the zero order evaporative flux Jev (molec cm-2 s-1) of H2O from pure ice displays a discontinuity at 193±2 K that could be observed owing to the accuracy and precision of the QCM measurements. It leads to: In addition, γ of H2O onto ice was found to be lower than 0.5 for temperatures below 240 K in contrast to the value of 1.0 which is often encountered in the literature. Subsequently, the deposited ice films have been doped with HNO3 using different protocols depending on parameters such as temperature, rate of deposition of HNO3 onto ice as well as number ofHNO3 molecules deposited. The reproducible and quantitative dosing of the doping gas was key to the quality of the results. This study has shed light on a complex interplay between several of these parameters that affect the continuous decrease of Jev during ice evaporation. Using atmospherically relevant conditions in the doping of ice by HNO3 we have observed crystalline α-NAT being most likely the first species that forms in/on ice films. During most of the evaporation of the ice film doped with known amounts of HNO3 we have checked that the vapor pressure over the ice film remains that of pure ice. Finally, HCl-doped ice films have been investigated in experiments that are complementary to the first set in order to verify that HCl doping has a similar impact on the change of Jev of H2O in the presence of small albeit known amounts of HCl. The doping protocol is a fundamental parameter determining the decrease of Jev with H2O evaporation time of doped ice films. In summary, we have developed from scratch a new experimental apparatus that allows the separation of the kinetic processes of condensation and evaporation of pure as well as doped ice films using multiple diagnostics under the same experimental conditions which was heretofore not attainable. The main result for pure ice films is that the uptake coefficient, γ of H2O on ice is always lower than approximately 0.5 for atmospherically relevant temperatures. Its negative temperature dependence has been confirmed. An accurate control of the doping protocol has allowed us to observe that for a fraction to a few monolayers of the doping gases, HCl, HBr and HNO3, the nature of the aforementioned protocol is the predominant factor influencing the continuous temporal decrease of Jev and γ during doped ice film evaporation. Of utmost importance is the fact that the vapor pressure over the doped ice films remains that of pure water ice during almost all of the evaporation process. These results may be of importance in atmospheric modeling for determining the lifetime of ice particles involved in clouds in regions that are undersaturated in the vapor pressure of H2O over ice. In this way the physical process of evaporation affects the importance of heterogeneous chemistry of atmospheric trace gases on ice substrates representative of Cirrus clouds, aviation induced Cirrus clouds and contrails as well as type II PSC's.