Faculté des sciences et techniques de l'ingénieur STI, Section de génie mécanique, Institut des sciences de l'énergie ISE (Laboratoire de transfert de chaleur et de masse LTCM)

Experimental and analytical investigation of void fraction and heat transfer during evaporation in horizontal tubes

Wojtan, Leszek ; Thome, John Richard (Dir.)

Thèse sciences Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne EPFL : 2004 ; no 2978.

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    A new optical void fraction measurement system has been coupled to the existing LTCM flow boiling test facility to obtain dynamic and time-averaged void fractions, simultaneously with measurements of the local heat transfer coefficients. A series of evaporation tests have been run for R-22 and R-410A in 13.84 mm and 8.00 mm ID tubes. Using our newly developed image processing system for processing laser illuminated cross-sectional views of the flow, about 310 000 images have been analysed in this study to provide the same number of dynamic void fraction measurements. From these images, 238 and 87 time-averaged void fraction values have been obtained for the 13.60 mm and 8.00 mm diameter glass tubes, respectively. The same number of time-averaged dry angles has been obtained. The measured void fractions have been compared to the principal prediction models, showing good agreement to the Steiner version of Rouhani-Axelsson drift flux model. Based on analysis of the void fraction evolution as a function of time, several modifications of the Kattan et al. flow pattern map [30] (1998a) have been made to improve the heat transfer prediction model in stratified-wavy flow and to extend its application to vapor qualities below 0.15. Over 1250 new flow boiling heat transfer points have been acquired at mass velocities from 70 to 700 kg/m2s and heat fluxes from 2.0 to 57.5 kW/m2. Based on the 368 heat transfer points obtained in dryout and mist flow conditions, new boundaries for the transitions (from/to) annular/dryout and dryout/mist flow have been defined and integrated into the flow pattern map of Kattan et al. A new heat transfer model for dryout and mist flow conditions has also been proposed, extending the flow pattern oriented model of Kattan et al. to these flow regimes.