Facoltà di scienze biomediche

Thioredoxin-related transmembrane proteins : TMX1 and little brothers TMX2, TMX3, TMX4 and TMX5

Guerra, Concetta ; Molinari, Maurizio

In: Cells, 2020, vol. 9, no. 9, p. 11 p

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is site of synthesis and maturation of membrane and secretory proteins in eukaryotic cells. The ER contains more than 20 members of the Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI) family. These enzymes regulate formation, isomerization and disassembly of covalent bonds between cysteine residues. As such, PDIs ensure protein folding, which is required to attain functional... More

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    Summary
    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is site of synthesis and maturation of membrane and secretory proteins in eukaryotic cells. The ER contains more than 20 members of the Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI) family. These enzymes regulate formation, isomerization and disassembly of covalent bonds between cysteine residues. As such, PDIs ensure protein folding, which is required to attain functional and transport-competent structure, and protein unfolding, which facilitates dislocation of defective gene products across the ER membrane for ER-associated degradation (ERAD). The PDI family includes over a dozen of soluble members and few membrane-bound ones. Among these latter, there are five PDIs grouped in the thioredoxin-related transmembrane (TMX) protein family. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on TMX1, TMX2, TMX3, TMX4 and TMX5, their structural features, regulation and roles in biogenesis and control of the mammalian cell’s proteome.