Facoltà di scienze biomediche

Modulation of chemokine responses : synergy and cooperativity

Proudfoot, Amanda E.I. ; Uguccioni, Mariagrazia

In: Frontiers in immunology, 2016, vol. 7, p. 183

Chemokine biology is mediated by more complex interactions than simple monomolecular ligand–receptor interactions, as chemokines can form higher order quaternary structures, which can also be formed after binding to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on endothelial cells, and their receptors are found as dimers and/or oligomers at the cell surface. Due to the complexity of the chemokine binding and... More

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    Summary
    Chemokine biology is mediated by more complex interactions than simple monomolecular ligand–receptor interactions, as chemokines can form higher order quaternary structures, which can also be formed after binding to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on endothelial cells, and their receptors are found as dimers and/or oligomers at the cell surface. Due to the complexity of the chemokine binding and signaling system, several mechanisms have been proposed to provide an explanation for the synergy observed between chemokines in leukocyte migration. Pioneering studies on interactions between different chemokines have revealed that they can act as antagonists, or synergize with other chemokines. The synergism can occur at different levels, involving either two chemokine receptors triggered simultaneously or sequentially exposed to their agonists, or the activation of one type of chemokine receptor triggered by chemokine heterocomplexes. In addition to the several chemokines that, by forming a heterocomplex with chemokine receptor agonists, act as enhancers of molecules of the same family, we have recently identified HMGB1, an endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) molecule, as an enhancer of the activity of CXCL12. It is now evident that synergism between chemokines is crucial at the very early stage of inflammation. In addition, the low-affinity interaction with GAGs has recently been shown to induce cooperativity allowing synergy or inhibition of activity by displacement of other ligands.