Faculté des sciences et de médecine

Screening for Intestinal Carriage of Extended-spectrum Beta-lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae in Critically Ill Patients: Expected Benefits and Evidence-based Controversies

Zahar, Jean-Ralph ; Blot, Stijn ; Nordmann, Patrice ; Martischang, Romain ; Timsit, Jean-François ; Harbarth, Stephan ; Barbier, François

In: Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2018, p. -

The rising burden of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections due to extended- spectrum beta-lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) strengthens the requirement for efficient prevention strategies. The detection of intestinal carriage of ESBL-E through active surveillance cultures (ASC) and the implementation of contact precautions (CP) in carriers are currently advocated in... More

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    Summary
    The rising burden of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections due to extended- spectrum beta-lactamase–producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) strengthens the requirement for efficient prevention strategies. The detection of intestinal carriage of ESBL-E through active surveillance cultures (ASC) and the implementation of contact precautions (CP) in carriers are currently advocated in most high-income countries, to prevent cross-transmission and subsequent ESBL-E infections in critically-ill patients. Yet, recent studies have challenged the benefit of ASC and CP in controlling the spread of ESBL-E in ICUs with high compliance to standard hygiene precautions and no ongoing outbreak of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae or Enterobacter spp. Besides, given their debated performance to positively predict which patients are at risk of ESBL-E infections, ASC results appear of limited value to rationalize the empirical use of carbapenems in the ICU, emphasizing the urgent need for novel anticipatory and diagnostic approaches. This Viewpoint article summarizes the available evidence on these issues.