Distribution of artifactual gas on post-mortem multidetector computed tomography (MDCT)

Egger, Coraline ; Bize, Pierre ; Vaucher, Paul ; Mosimann, Pascal ; Schneider, Benjamin ; Dominguez, Alejandro ; Meuli, Reto ; Mangin, Patrice ; Grabherr, Silke

In: International Journal of Legal Medicine, 2012, vol. 126, no. 1, p. 3-12

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    Summary
    Purpose: We investigated the incidence and distribution of post-mortem gas detected with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to identify factors that could distinguish artifactual gas from cardiac air embolism. Material and methods: MDCT data of 119 cadavers were retrospectively examined. Gas was semiquantitatively assessed in selected blood vessels, organs, and body spaces (82 total sites). Results: Seventy-four of the 119 cadavers displayed gas (62.2%; CI 95% 52.8-70.9), and 56 (75.7%) displayed gas in the heart. Most gas was detected in the hepatic parenchyma (40%), right heart (38% ventricle, 35% atrium), inferior vena cava (30% infrarenally, 26% suprarenally), hepatic veins (26% left, 29% middle, 22% right), and portal spaces (29%). Male cadavers displayed gas more frequently than female cadavers. Gas was detected 5-84 hours after death; therefore, the post-mortem interval could not reliably predict gas distribution (rho = 0.719, p < 0.0001). We found that a large amount of putrefaction-generated gas in the right heart was associated with aggregated gas bubbles in the hepatic parenchyma (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 89.7%). In contrast, gas in the left heart (sensitivity = 41.7%, specificity = 100%) or in periumbilical subcutaneous tissues (sensitivity = 50%, specificity = 96.3%) could not predict gas due to putrefaction. Conclusion: This study is the first to show that the appearance of post-mortem gas follows a specific distribution pattern. An association between intracardiac gas and hepatic parenchymal gas could distinguish between post-mortem-generated gas and vital air embolism. We propose that this finding provides a key for diagnosing death due to cardiac air embolism