Influence of Injury Pattern on Incidence andSeverity of Posttraumatic InflammatoryComplications in Severely Injured Patients

Keel, Marius ; Eid, Karim ; Labler, Ludwig ; Seifert, Burkhardt ; Trentz, Otmar ; Ertel, Wolfgang

In: European Journal of Trauma, 2006, vol. 32, no. 4, p. 387-395

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    Background:: Severe trauma causes systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) which may lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) or multiple organ failure (MOF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the injury pattern on the incidence and severity of SIRS, sepsis, MODS, and mortality. Methods:: A total of 1,273 patients with an injury severity score (ISS) of ≥ 9 points and survival of more than 3 days were included in this retrospective study. Outcome parameters were various grades of SIRS, sepsis, MODS, and mortality. Results:: Severe non-infectious SIRS occurred in 23%, sepsis in 14%, and severe MODS in 14% of the patients. Serious (abbreviated injury scale (AIS) ≥ 3 points) head injury and the ISS represented the most potent risk factors for severe SIRS. As estimated by multivariate logistic regression analysis, the presence of severe extremity and pelvic injuries, the ISS, and the male gender were found to be independent risk factors for sepsis. Severe injuries of the abdomen were associated with an increased risk for sepsis in the univariate analysis. Severe injuries to the head or abdomen, the ISS, and the male gender represented independent risk factors for the development of severe MODS. Regarding the late (> 3 days after trauma) hospital mortality, severe head injury, the ISS, and the patient's age were independent risk factors. Conclusions:: Head injury predominantly determines the incidence of non-infectious systemic inflammation, MOF, and late hospital mortality of patients with severe trauma. Skeletal or abdominal injuries represent relevant risk factors for septic complications. Thus, the incidence of posttraumatic, life-threatening inflammatory complications is related with certain injury patterns in addition to the gender and the severity of trauma