Faculté des sciences

Metrological characterization of custom-designed 894.6 nm VCSELs for miniature atomic clocks

Gruet, Florian ; Al-Samaneh, Ahmed ; Kroemer, Eric ; Bimboes, Laura ; Miletic, Danijela ; Affolderbach, Christoph ; Wahl, Dietmar ; Boudot, Rodolphe ; Mileti, Gaetano ; Michalzik, Rainer

In: Optics Express, 2013, vol. 21, no. 5, p. 5781-5792

We report on the characterization and validation of custom-designed 894.6 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), for use in miniature Cs atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping (CPT). The laser relative intensity noise (RIN) is measured to be 1×10−11 Hz−1 at 10 Hz Fourier frequency, for a laser power of 700 μW. The VCSEL frequency noise... Plus

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    Summary
    We report on the characterization and validation of custom-designed 894.6 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), for use in miniature Cs atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping (CPT). The laser relative intensity noise (RIN) is measured to be 1×10−11 Hz−1 at 10 Hz Fourier frequency, for a laser power of 700 μW. The VCSEL frequency noise is 1013 ƒ −1 Hz2/Hz in the 10 Hz < ƒ < 105 Hz range, which is in good agreement with the VCSEL’s measured fractional frequency instability (Allan deviation) of ≈ 1 × 10−8 at 1 s, and also is consistent with the VCSEL’s typical optical linewidth of 20–25 MHz. The VCSEL bias current can be directly modulated at 4.596 GHz with a microwave power of −6 to +6 dBm to generate optical sidebands for CPT excitation. With such a VCSEL, a 1.04 kHz linewidth CPT clock resonance signal is detected in a microfabricated Cs cell filled with Ne buffer gas. These results are compatible with state-of-the-art CPT-based miniature atomic clocks exhibiting a short-term frequency instability of 2–3×10−11 at τ = 1 s and few 10−12 at τ = 104 s integration time.