The Fate of Children with Microdeletion 22q11.2 Syndrome and Congenital Heart Defect: Clinical Course and Cardiac Outcome

Kyburz, A. ; Bauersfeld, U. ; Schinzel, A. ; Riegel, M. ; Hug, M. ; Tomaske, M. ; Valsangiacomo Büchel, E.

In: Pediatric Cardiology, 2008, vol. 29, no. 1, p. 76-83

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    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the cardiac outcome for children with microdeletion 22q11.2 and congenital heart defect (CHD). Methods: A total of 49 consecutive children with 22q11.2 and CHD were retrospectively identified. The CHD consisted of tetralogy of Fallot and variances (n = 22), interrupted aortic arch (n = 10), ventricular septal defect (n = 8), truncus arteriosus (n = 6), and double aortic arch (n = 1). Extracardiac anomalies were present in 46 of 47 children. Results: The median follow-up time was 8.5 years (range, 3 months to 23.5 years). Cardiac surgical repair was performed for 35 children, whereas 5 had palliative surgery, and 9 never underwent cardiac surgery. The median age at repair was 7.5 months (range, 2 days to 5 years). The mean hospital stay was 35 days (range, 7-204 days), and the intensive care unit stay was 15 days (range, 3-194 days). Significant postoperative complications occurred for 26 children (74%), and surgery for extracardiac malformations was required for 21 patients (43%). The overall mortality rate was 22% (11/49), with 1-year survival for 86% and 5-year survival for 80% of the patients. A total of 27 cardiac reinterventions were performed for 16 patients (46%) including 15 reoperations and 12 interventional catheterizations. Residual cardiac findings were present in 25 patients (71%) at the end of the follow-up period. Conclusions: Children with microdeletion 22q11.2 and CHD are at high risk for mortality and morbidity, as determined by both the severity of the cardiac lesions and the extracardiac anomalies associated with the microdeletion