Pure superficial posterior cerebral artery territory infarction in The Lausanne Stroke Registry

Cals, Nathalie ; Devuyst, Gérald ; Afsar, Nazire ; Karapanayiotides, Theodore ; Bogousslavsky, Julien

In: Journal of Neurology, 2002, vol. 249, no. 7, p. 855-861

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    Summary
    Abstract.: Objective:: To determine the patterns of clinical presentation, lesion topography, and etiology in patients with ischemic stroke limited to the superficial territory of the posterior cerebral artery (s-PCA). Methods:: In the Lausanne Stroke Registry (LSR, 1983-1998), we determined the patterns of clinical presentation, lesion topography and mechanisms of stroke, among 117 patients with s-PCA infarction (s-PCAI) on brain imaging. Results:: s-PCAIs accounted for 30.5 % of all PCA territory ischemic strokes. The presumed etiology was embolism in 64 (54.5 %) patients [cardiac in 51 (43.5 %) and arterial in 13 (11 %)], indeterminate in 38 (32 %), PCA atherothrombosis in 4 (3.4 %), migraine in 4 (3.4 %), other rare causes in 4 (3.4 %), and multiple potential sources of embolism in 3 (2.5 %). The clinical findings were hemianopsia in 78 (67 %), quadrantanopsia in 26 (22 %), and bilateral visual field defects in 8 (7 %). Motor, sensory, or sensorimotor deficits were detected in 14 (12 %), 8 (6.8 %), or 8 (6.8 %) patients, respectively. Neuropsychological dysfunction included memory impairment in 20 (17.5 %; with left [L], right [R], or bilateral [B] lesions in 15, 2, or 3 patients, respectively), dysphasia in 17 (14.5 %; L/B: 14/3), dyslexia with dysgraphia in 5 (4 %; L/B: 4/1), dyslexia without dysgraphia in 10 (8.5 %; L/B: 8/2), hallucinations in 12 (10 %; L/R/B: 5/5/2), visual neglect in 11 (9.5 %; L/R: 2/9), visual agnosia in 10 (8.5 %; L/B: 7/3), prosopagnosia in 7 (6 %; R/B: 4/3), and color dysnomia in 6 (5 %; L: 6). Conclusions:: s-PCAIs are uncommon, representing less than a third of all PCA infarctions. Although embolism is the main cause in 60 % of patients, identification of the emboli source is often not possible. In 1/3 of cases, the stroke mechanism cannot be determined. Neuropsychological deficits are frequent if systematically searched for