Modified ultrafiltration lowers adhesion molecule and cytokine levels after cardiopulmonary bypass without clinical relevance in adults

Grünenfelder, Jürg ; Zünd, Gregor ; Schoeberlein, Andreina ; Maly, Friedrich E. ; Schurr, Ulrich ; Guntli, Silvia ; Fischer, Katja ; Turina, Marko

In: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, 2000, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 77-83

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    Summary
    Objective: Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) results in expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules (AM) with subsequent inflammatory response. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the clinical impact of modified ultrafiltration (MUF) and its efficacy in reducing cytokines and AM following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in adults. Methods: A prospective randomized study of 97 patients undergoing elective CABG was designed. Fifty patients were operated on using normothermic and 47 patients using hypothermic CPB. The normothermic group was subdivided into a group with modified ultrafiltration (n=30) and a group without MUF (n=20). In the hypothermic group 30 patients received MUF compared to 17 patients serving as controls. MUF was instituted after CPB for 15 min through the arterial and venous bypass circuit lines. Cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-2R) and adhesion molecules (sE-selectin, sICAM-1) were measured preoperatively, pre-MUF, in the ultrafiltrate, 24 h, 48 h and 6 days after surgery by chemiluminescent enzyme immunometric assay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Clinical parameters were collected prospectively until discharge. Results: In all patients AM and cytokines were significantly elevated after normothermic and hypothemic CPB. AM and cytokines were significantly higher in hypothermia compared to normothermia. In hypothermic CPB sE-selectin was decreased after 24 h by 37% (P<0.0063) and by 40% (P<0.0027) after 48 h postoperatively. ICAM-1 was reduced by 43% (P<0.0001) after 24 h and by 60% (P<0.0001) after 6 days. Similar results were seen in cytokines with reduction up to 60% after 24 h. Changes after 48 h were noticeable but not significant. Reduction of AM and cytokines after normothermic CPB was minimal. Neither in normothermia, nor in hypothermia has sIL-2R been effectively removed from the circulation. There were no significant differences in the clinical variables between the patients with or without MUF. Conclusion: AM and cytokines are significantly elevated after hypothermic CPB compared to normothermic CPB. MUF led to a significant reduction in cytokine and AM levels after hypothermic CPB, except for IL-2R. MUF showed minimal effect in normothermia. We conclude that MUF is an efficient way to remove cytokines and AM. However, we were unable to demonstrate any significant impact of MUF in outcome of adults after elective CABG