Clinical outcomes of patients with low-flow, low-gradient, severe aortic stenosis and either preserved or reduced ejection fraction undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation

O'Sullivan, Crochan J. ; Stortecky, Stefan ; Heg, Dik ; Pilgrim, Thomas ; Hosek, Nicola ; Buellesfeld, Lutz ; Khattab, Ahmed A. ; Nietlispach, Fabian ; Moschovitis, Aris ; Zanchin, Thomas ; Meier, Bernhard ; Windecker, Stephan ; Wenaweser, Peter

In: European Heart Journal, 2013, vol. 34, no. 44, p. 3437-3450

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    Summary
    Aims Our aim was to evaluate the invasive haemodynamic indices of high-risk symptomatic patients presenting with ‘paradoxical' low-flow, low-gradient, severe aortic stenosis (AS) (PLF-LG) and low-flow, low-gradient severe AS (LEF-LG) and to compare clinical outcomes following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) among these challenging AS subgroups. Methods and results Of 534 symptomatic patients undergoing TAVI, 385 had a full pre-procedural right and left heart catheterization. A total of 208 patients had high-gradient severe AS [HGAS; mean gradient (MG) ≥40 mmHg], 85 had PLF-LG [MG ≤ 40 mmHg, indexed aortic valve area [iAVA] ≤0.6 cm2 m−2, stroke volume index ≤35 mL/m2, ejection fraction (EF) ≥50%], and 61 had LEF-LG (MG ≤ 40 mmHg, iAVA ≤0.6 cm2 m−2, EF ≤40%). Compared with HGAS, PLF-LG and LEF-LG had higher systemic vascular resistances (HGAS: 1912 ± 654 vs. PLF-LG: 2006 ± 586 vs. LEF-LG: 2216 ± 765 dyne s m−5, P = 0.007) but lower valvulo-arterial impedances (HGAS: 7.8 ± 2.7 vs. PLF-LG: 6.9 ± 1.9 vs. LEF-LG: 7.7 ± 2.5 mmHg mL−1 m−2, P = 0.027). At 30 days, no differences in cardiac death (6.5 vs. 4.9 vs. 6.6%, P = 0.90) or death (8.4 vs. 6.1 vs. 6.6%, P = 0.88) were observed among HGAS, PLF-LG, and LEF-LG groups, respectively. At 1 year, New York Heart Association functional improvement occurred in most surviving patients (HGAS: 69.2% vs. PLF-LG: 71.7% vs. LEF-LG: 89.3%, P = 0.09) and no significant differences in overall mortality were observed (17.6 vs. 20.5 vs. 24.5%, P = 0.67). Compared with HGAS, LEF-LG had a higher 1 year cardiac mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 2.45, 95% confidence interval 1.04-5.75, P = 0.04). Conclusion TAVI in PLF-LG or LEF-LG patients is associated with overall mortality rates comparable with HGAS patients and all groups profit symptomatically to a similar extent