Limits on the 2.2-μm contrast ratio of the close-orbiting planet HD 189733b

Barnes, J. R. ; Barman, Travis S. ; Prato, L. ; Segransan, D. ; Jones, H. R. A. ; Leigh, C. J. ; Collier Cameron, A. ; Pinfield, D. J.

In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2007, vol. 382, no. 1, p. 473-480

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    Summary
    We obtained 238 spectra of the close-orbiting extrasolar giant planet HD 189733b with resolution R∼ 15 000 during one night of observations with the Near-Infrared High-Resolution Spectrograph (NIRSPEC), at the Keck II Telescope. We have searched for planetary absorption signatures in the 2.0-2.4 μm region where H2O and CO are expected to be the dominant atmospheric opacities. We employ a phase-dependent orbital model and tomographic techniques to search for the planetary absorption signatures in the combined stellar and planetary spectra. Because potential absorption signatures are hidden in the noise of each single exposure, we use a model list of lines to apply a spectral deconvolution. The resulting mean profile possesses a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) that is 20 times greater than that found in individual lines. Our spectral time series thus yields spectral signatures with a mean S/N = 2720. We are unable to detect a planetary signature at a contrast ratio of log10(Fp/F*) =−3.40, with 63.8 per cent confidence. Our findings are not consistent with model predictions which nevertheless give a good fit to mid-infrared observations of HD 189733b. The 1σ result is a factor of 1.7 times less than the predicted 2.185-μm planet/star flux ratio of log10(Fp/F*) ∼−3.16