The HADES mission concept - astrobiological survey of Jupiter's icy moon Europa

Böttcher, Thomas ; Huber, Liliane ; Le Corre, Lucille ; Leitner, Johannes ; McCarthy, David ; Nilsson, Ricky ; Teixeira, Carlos ; Vaquer Araujo, Sergi ; Wilson, Rebecca C. ; Adjali, Fatah ; Altenburg, Martin ; Briani, Giacomo ; Buchas, Peter ; Le Postollec, Aurélie ; Meier, Teresa

In: International Journal of Astrobiology, 2009, vol. 8, no. 4, p. 321-329

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    Summary
    The HADES Europa mission concept aims to provide a framework for an astrobiological in-depth investigation of the Jupiter moon Europa, relying on existing technologies and feasibility. This mission study proposes a system consisting of an orbiter, lander and cryobot as a platform for detailed exploration of Europa. While the orbiter will investigate the presence of a liquid ocean and characterize Europa's internal structure, the lander will survey local dynamics of the ice layer and the surface environment. The lander releases a cryobot, that melts into the ice, will sample the pristine subsurface and is expected to provide data on organic and gaseous content and putative bio-signatures. In summary, we present the scientific objectives for an astrobiological investigation of Europa, resulting in a mission concept with a detailed evaluation of scientific instrumentation, mission sequences, basic design of the spacecraft, technology needs and cost estimations