Results of surgery for irreversible moderate to severe mitral valve regurgitation secondary to myocardial infarction

Tavakoli, Reza ; Weber, Alberto ; Brunner-La Rocca, Hanspeter ; Bettex, Dominique ; Vogt, Paul ; Pretre, Rene ; Jenni, Rolf ; Turina, Marko

In: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, 2002, vol. 21, no. 5, p. 818-824

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    Objective: Moderate to severe irreversible mitral regurgitation secondary to myocardial infarction is an independent risk factor for reduced long-term survival. Late effects of correction of mitral incompetence concomitant with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are less well known and the choice of mitral valve procedure is still debated. Methods: From 1988 to 1998, 93 consecutive patients (mean age 63±9 years) were treated for moderate to severe irreversible mitral regurgitation secondary to myocardial infarction; 84 were in NYHA functional class III-IV and 19 were in cardiogenic shock. Thirty-seven patients underwent emergency surgery. Perioperative intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) was necessary in 33 patients. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 12 years (mean 51 months±41). Results: Mitral valve was repaired in 30 patients and replaced in 63. Replacement was preferably performed in patients with major displacement of papillary muscle and in patients with acute papillary muscle rupture. CABG (3.4 distal anastomoses) was performed in all patients and was complete in 92%. Early mortality was 15% (14/93). Multivariable analysis identified need for IABP (P=0.005) and COPD (P=0.02) as risk factors for early death. Emergency surgery had only a trend (P=0.15) for increased mortality; age, low ejection fraction, repair vs. replacement had no influence. Actuarial survival rates at 1, 5 and 10 years were 81, 65 and 56%, respectively. Late survival was similar in patients with replacement or repair (P=0.46). At last follow-up, all but one patient were in NYHA functional class I or II. Conclusions: Combined mitral valve procedure and myocardial revascularization, as complete as possible, for moderate to severe mitral regurgitation secondary to myocardial infarction achieve satisfactory early and late outcome despite the increased operative mortality. Acute papillary muscle rupture, severe restriction of the mitral valve by major displacement of the papillary muscle are better managed by valve replacement