Faculté des sciences économiques et sociales

Three-Valued Modal Logic for Qualitative Comparative Policy Analysis with Crisp-Set QCA

Mueller, Georg P.

(Working Papers SES ; 450)

Contradictory and missing outcomes are problems common to many qualitative comparative studies, based on the methodology of crisp-set QCA. They also occur in public policy analyses, e.g. if important background variables are omitted or outcomes of new policies are technically censored. As a new solution to these problems, this article proposes the use of three-valued modal logic, originally... More

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    Summary
    Contradictory and missing outcomes are problems common to many qualitative comparative studies, based on the methodology of crisp-set QCA. They also occur in public policy analyses, e.g. if important background variables are omitted or outcomes of new policies are technically censored. As a new solution to these problems, this article proposes the use of three-valued modal logic, originally introduced by the Polish philosopher Jan Lukasiewicz (1970). In addition to true and false, indeterminate is the third truth-value in this alternative approach, which serves to code missing or contradictory data. Moreover, modal operators allow a differentiation between strict and possible triggers and inhibitors of policy outcomes. The advantages of three-valued modal logic in crisp-set QCA are illustrated by an empirical example from comparative welfare policy analysis. Its conclusions allow comparisons with the corresponding results from a conventional crisp-set QCA of the same data-set.