Faculté informatique et communications IC, Programme doctoral Informatique, Communications et Information, Institut des systèmes informatiques et multimédias ISIM (Laboratoire de réalité virtuelle VRLAB)
Generating, animating, and rendering varied individuals for real-time crowds
Thèse Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne EPFL : 2009 ; no 4405.Add to personal list
- To simulate realistic crowds of virtual humans in real time, three main requirements need satisfaction. First of all, quantity, i.e., the ability to simulate thousands of characters. Secondly, quality, because each virtual human composing a crowd needs to look unique in its appearance and animation. Finally, efficiency is paramount, for an operation usually efficient on a single virtual human, becomes extremely costly when applied on large crowds. Developing an architecture able to manage all three aspects is a challenging problem that we have addressed in our research. Our first contribution is an efficient and versatile architecture called YaQ, able to simulate thousands of characters in real time. This platform, developed at EPFL-VRLab, results from several years of research and integrates state-of-the-art techniques at all levels: YaQ aims at providing efficient algorithms and real-time solutions for populating globally and massively large-scale empty environments. YaQ thus fits various application domains, such as video games and virtual reality. Our architecture is especially efficient in managing the large quantity of data that is used to simulate crowds. In order to simulate large crowds, many instances of a small set of human templates have to be generated. From this starting point, if no care is taken to vary each character individually, many clones appear in the crowd. We present several algorithms to make each individual unique in the crowd. Firstly, we introduce a new method to distinguish body parts of a human and apply detailed color variety and patterns to each one of them. Secondly, we present two techniques to modify the shape and profile of a virtual human: a simple and efficient method for attaching accessories to individuals, and efficient tools to scale the skeleton and mesh of an instance. Finally, we also contribute to varying individuals' animation by introducing variations to the upper body movements, thus allowing characters to make a phone call, have a hand in their pocket, or carry heavy accessories, etc. To achieve quantity in a crowd, levels of detail need to be used. We explore the most adequate solutions to simulate large crowds with levels of detail, while avoiding disturbing switches between two different representations of a virtual human. To do so, we develop solutions to make most variety techniques scalable to all levels of detail.